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Pregnancy

8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C In animal studies ziprasidone demonstrated developmental toxicity, including possible teratogenic effects at doses similar to human therapeutic doses. When ziprasidone was administered to pregnant rabbits during the period of organogenesis, an increased incidence of fetal structural abnormalities (ventricular septal defects and other cardiovascular malformations and kidney alterations) was observed at a dose of 30 mg/kg/day (3 times the MRHD of 200 mg/day on a mg/m2 basis). There was no evidence to suggest that these developmental effects were secondary to maternal toxicity. The developmental no-effect dose was 10 mg/kg/day (equivalent to the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). In rats, embryofetal toxicity (decreased fetal weights, delayed skeletal ossification) was observed following administration of 10 to 160 mg/kg/day (0.5 to 8 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) during organogenesis or throughout gestation, but there was no evidence of teratogenicity. Doses of 40 and 160 mg/kg/day (2 and 8 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) were associated with maternal toxicity. The developmental no-effect dose was 5 mg/kg/day (0.2 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). There was an increase in the number of pups born dead and a decrease in postnatal survival through the first 4 days of lactation among the offspring of female rats treated during gestation and lactation with doses of 10 mg/kg/day (0.5 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) or greater. Offspring developmental delays and neurobehavioral functional impairment were observed at doses of 5 mg/kg/day (0.2 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) or greater. A no-effect level was not established for these effects. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Ziprasidone should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Non-teratogenic Effects Neonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs, during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms following delivery. There have been reports of agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, respiratory distress and feeding disorder in these neonates. These complications have varied in severity; while in some cases symptoms have been self-limited, in other cases neonates have required intensive care unit support and prolonged hospitalization. Geodon should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Drug Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Drug-drug interactions can be pharmacodynamic (combined pharmacologic effects) or pharmacokinetic (alteration of plasma levels). The risks of using ziprasidone in combination with other drugs have been evaluated as described below. All interactions studies have been conducted with oral ziprasidone. Based upon the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile of ziprasidone, possible interactions could be anticipated: Ziprasidone should not be used in combination with other drugs that have demonstrated QT prolongation. (4.1, 7.3) The absorption of ziprasidone is increased up to two-fold in the presence of food. (7.9) The full prescribing information contains additional drug interactions. (7). 7.1 Metabolic Pathway Approximately two-thirds of ziprasidone is metabolized via a combination of chemical reduction by glutathione and enzymatic reduction by aldehyde oxidase. There are no known clinically relevant inhibitors or inducers of aldehyde oxidase. Less than one-third of ziprasidone metabolic clearance is mediated by cytochrome P450 catalyzed oxidation. 7.2 In Vitro Studies An in vitro enzyme inhibition study utilizing human liver microsomes showed that ziprasidone had little inhibitory effect on CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, and thus would not likely interfere with the metabolism of drugs primarily metabolized by these enzymes. There is little potential for drug interactions with ziprasidone due to displacement [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 7.3 Pharmacodynamic Interactions Ziprasidone should not be used with any drug that prolongs the QT interval [see Contraindications (4.1)]. Given the primary CNS effects of ziprasidone, caution should be used when it is taken in combination with other centrally acting drugs. Because of its potential for inducing hypotension, ziprasidone may enhance the effects of certain antihypertensive agents. Ziprasidone may antagonize the effects of levodopa and dopamine agonists. 7.4 Pharmacokinetic Interactions Carbamazepine Carbamazepine is an inducer of CYP3A4; administration of 200 mg twice daily for 21 days resulted in a decrease of approximately 35% in the AUC of ziprasidone. This effect may be greater when higher doses of carbamazepine are administered. Ketoconazole Ketoconazole, a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, at a dose of 400 mg QD for 5 days, increased the AUC and Cmax of ziprasidone by about 35–40%. Other inhibitors of CYP3A4 would be expected to have similar effects. Cimetidine Cimetidine at a dose of 800 mg QD for 2 days did not affect ziprasidone pharmacokinetics. Antacid The co-administration of 30 mL of Maalox® with ziprasidone did not affect the pharmacokinetics of ziprasidone. 7.5 Lithium Ziprasidone at a dose of 40 mg twice daily administered concomitantly with lithium at a dose of 450 mg twice daily for 7 days did not affect the steady-state level or renal clearance of lithium. Ziprasidone dosed adjunctively to lithium in a maintenance trial of bipolar patients did not affect mean therapeutic lithium levels. 7.6 Oral Contraceptives In vivo studies have revealed no effect of ziprasidone on the pharmacokinetics of estrogen or progesterone components. Ziprasidone at a dose of 20 mg twice daily did not affect the pharmacokinetics of concomitantly administered oral contraceptives, ethinyl estradiol (0.03 mg) and levonorgestrel (0.15 mg). 7.7 Dextromethorphan Consistent with in vitro results, a study in normal healthy volunteers showed that ziprasidone did not alter the metabolism of dextromethorphan, a CYP2D6 model substrate, to its major metabolite, dextrorphan. There was no statistically significant change in the urinary dextromethorphan/dextrorphan ratio. 7.8 Valproate A pharmacokinetic interaction of ziprasidone with valproate is unlikely due to the lack of common metabolic pathways for the two drugs. Ziprasidone dosed adjunctively to valproate in a maintenance trial of bipolar patients did not affect mean therapeutic valproate levels. 7.9 Other Concomitant Drug Therapy Population pharmacokinetic analysis of schizophrenic patients enrolled in controlled clinical trials has not revealed evidence of any clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions with benztropine, propranolol, or lorazepam. 7.10 Food Interaction The absolute bioavailability of a 20 mg dose under fed conditions is approximately 60%. The absorption of ziprasidone is increased up to two-fold in the presence of food [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Indications And Usage

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE GEODON is indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia, as monotherapy for the acute treatment of bipolar manic or mixed episodes, and as an adjunct to lithium or valproate for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. GEODON intramuscular is indicated for acute agitation in schizophrenic patients. When deciding among the alternative treatments available for the condition needing treatment, the prescriber should consider the finding of ziprasidone's greater capacity to prolong the QT/QTc interval compared to several other antipsychotic drugs [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ]. Prolongation of the QTc interval is associated in some other drugs with the ability to cause torsade de pointes-type arrhythmia, a potentially fatal polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, and sudden death. In many cases this would lead to the conclusion that other drugs should be tried first. Whether ziprasidone will cause torsade de pointes or increase the rate of sudden death is not yet known [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ] GEODON is an atypical antipsychotic. In choosing among treatments, prescribers should be aware of the capacity of GEODON to prolong the QT interval and may consider the use of other drugs first (5.2) GEODON is indicated as an oral formulation for the: Treatment of schizophrenia. (1.1) Adults: Efficacy was established in four 4–6 week trials and one maintenance trial in adult patients with schizophrenia. (14.1) Acute treatment as monotherapy of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. (1.2) Adults: Efficacy was established in two 3-week trials in adult patients with manic or mixed episodes. (14.2) Maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder as an adjunct to lithium or valproate. (1.2) Adults: Efficacy was established in one maintenance trial in adult patients. (14.2) GEODON as an intramuscular injection is indicated for the: Acute treatment of agitation in schizophrenic patients. (1.3) Adults: Efficacy was established in two short-term trials in agitated patients with schizophrenia. (1.3) 1.1 Schizophrenia Geodon is indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia. The efficacy of oral ziprasidone was established in four short-term (4- and 6-week) controlled trials of adult schizophrenic inpatients and in one maintenance trial of stable adult schizophrenic inpatients [see Clinical Studies (14.1) ]. 1.2 Bipolar I Disorder (Acute Mixed or Manic Episodes and Maintenance Treatment as an Adjunct to Lithium or Valproate) Geodon is indicated as monotherapy for the acute treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. Efficacy was established in two 3-week monotherapy studies in adult patients [see Clinical Studies (14.2) ]. Geodon is indicated as an adjunct to lithium or valproate for the maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder. Efficacy was established in a maintenance trial in adult patients. The efficacy of Geodon as monotherapy for the maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder has not been systematically evaluated in controlled clinical trials [see Clinical Studies (14.2) ]. 1.3 Acute Treatment of Agitation in Schizophrenia GEODON intramuscular is indicated for the treatment of acute agitation in schizophrenic patients for whom treatment with ziprasidone is appropriate and who need intramuscular antipsychotic medication for rapid control of agitation. The efficacy of intramuscular ziprasidone for acute agitation in schizophrenia was established in single day controlled trials of agitated schizophrenic inpatients [see Clinical Trials (14.1) ] "Psychomotor agitation" is defined in DSM-IV as "excessive motor activity associated with a feeling of inner tension". Schizophrenic patients experiencing agitation often manifest behaviors that interfere with their diagnosis and care, e.g., threatening behaviors, escalating or urgently distressing behavior, or self-exhausting behavior, leading clinicians to the use of intramuscular antipsychotic medications to achieve immediate control of the agitation. Since there is no experience regarding the safety of administering ziprasidone intramuscular to schizophrenic patients already taking oral ziprasidone, the practice of co-administration is not recommended. Ziprasidone intramuscular is intended for intramuscular use only and should not be administered intravenously.

Clinical Studies

14 CLINICAL STUDIES 14.1 Schizophrenia The efficacy of oral ziprasidone in the treatment of schizophrenia was evaluated in 5 placebo-controlled studies, 4 short-term (4- and 6-week) trials and one maintenance trial. All trials were in adult inpatients, most of whom met DSM III-R criteria for schizophrenia. Each study included 2 to 3 fixed doses of ziprasidone as well as placebo. Four of the 5 trials were able to distinguish ziprasidone from placebo; one short-term study did not. Although a single fixed-dose haloperidol arm was included as a comparative treatment in one of the three short-term trials, this single study was inadequate to provide a reliable and valid comparison of ziprasidone and haloperidol. Several instruments were used for assessing psychiatric signs and symptoms in these studies. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) are both multi-item inventories of general psychopathology usually used to evaluate the effects of drug treatment in schizophrenia. The BPRS psychosis cluster (conceptual disorganization, hallucinatory behavior, suspiciousness, and unusual thought content) is considered a particularly useful subset for assessing actively psychotic schizophrenic patients. A second widely used assessment, the Clinical Global Impression (CGI), reflects the impression of a skilled observer, fully familiar with the manifestations of schizophrenia, about the overall clinical state of the patient. In addition, the Scale for Assessing Negative Symptoms (SANS) was employed for assessing negative symptoms in one trial. The results of the oral ziprasidone trials in schizophrenia follow: In a 4-week, placebo-controlled trial (n=139) comparing 2 fixed doses of ziprasidone (20 and 60 mg twice daily) with placebo, only the 60 mg dose was superior to placebo on the BPRS total score and the CGI severity score. This higher dose group was not superior to placebo on the BPRS psychosis cluster or on the SANS. In a 6-week, placebo-controlled trial (n=302) comparing 2 fixed doses of ziprasidone (40 and 80 mg twice daily) with placebo, both dose groups were superior to placebo on the BPRS total score, the BPRS psychosis cluster, the CGI severity score and the PANSS total and negative subscale scores. Although 80 mg twice daily had a numerically greater effect than 40 mg twice daily, the difference was not statistically significant. In a 6-week, placebo-controlled trial (n=419) comparing 3 fixed doses of ziprasidone (20, 60, and 100 mg twice daily) with placebo, all three dose groups were superior to placebo on the PANSS total score, the BPRS total score, the BPRS psychosis cluster, and the CGI severity score. Only the 100 mg twice daily dose group was superior to placebo on the PANSS negative subscale score. There was no clear evidence for a dose-response relationship within the 20 mg twice daily to 100 mg twice daily dose range. In a 4-week, placebo-controlled trial (n=200) comparing 3 fixed doses of ziprasidone (5, 20, and 40 mg twice daily), none of the dose groups was statistically superior to placebo on any outcome of interest. A study was conducted in stable chronic or subchronic (CGI-S ≤5 at baseline) schizophrenic inpatients (n=294) who had been hospitalized for not less than two months. After a 3-day single-blind placebo run-in, subjects were randomized to one of 3 fixed doses of ziprasidone (20 mg, 40 mg, or 80 mg twice daily) or placebo and observed for relapse. Patients were observed for "impending psychotic relapse," defined as CGI-improvement score of ≥6 (much worse or very much worse) and/or scores ≥6 (moderately severe) on the hostility or uncooperativeness items of the PANSS on two consecutive days. Ziprasidone was significantly superior to placebo in time to relapse, with no significant difference between the different dose groups. There were insufficient data to examine population subsets based on age and race. Examination of population subsets based on gender did not reveal any differential responsiveness. 14.2 Bipolar I Disorder (Acute Mixed or Manic Episodes and Maintenance Treatment as an Adjunct to Lithium or Valproate) Acute Manic and Mixed Episodes Associated with Bipolar I Disorder The efficacy of ziprasidone was established in 2 placebo-controlled, double-blind, 3-week monotherapy studies in patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I disorder, manic or mixed episode with or without psychotic features. Primary rating instruments used for assessing manic symptoms in these trials were: (1) the Mania Rating Scale (MRS), which is derived from the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Change Version (SADS-CB) with items grouped as the Manic Syndrome subscale (elevated mood, less need for sleep, excessive energy, excessive activity, grandiosity), the Behavior and Ideation subscale (irritability, motor hyperactivity, accelerated speech, racing thoughts, poor judgment) and impaired insight; and (2) the Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness Scale (CGI-S), which was used to assess the clinical significance of treatment response. The results of the oral ziprasidone trials in adult bipolar I disorder, manic/mixed episode follow: in a 3-week placebo-controlled trial (n=210), the dose of ziprasidone was 40 mg twice daily on Day 1 and 80 mg twice daily on Day 2. Titration within the range of 40–80 mg twice daily (in 20 mg twice daily increments) was permitted for the duration of the study. Ziprasidone was significantly more effective than placebo in reduction of the MRS total score and the CGI-S score. The mean daily dose of ziprasidone in this study was 132 mg. In a second 3-week placebo-controlled trial (n=205), the dose of ziprasidone was 40 mg twice daily on Day 1. Titration within the range of 40–80 mg twice daily (in 20 mg twice daily increments) was permitted for the duration of study (beginning on Day 2). Ziprasidone was significantly more effective than placebo in reduction of the MRS total score and the CGI-S score. The mean daily dose of ziprasidone in this study was 112 mg. Maintenance Therapy The efficacy of ziprasidone as adjunctive therapy to lithium or valproate in the maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder was established in a placebo-controlled trial in patients who met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I disorder. The trial included patients whose most recent episode was manic or mixed, with or without psychotic features. In the open-label phase, patients were required to be stabilized on ziprasidone plus lithium or valproic acid for at least 8 weeks in order to be randomized. In the double-blind randomized phase, patients continued treatment with lithium or valproic acid and were randomized to receive either ziprasidone (administered twice daily totaling 80 mg to 160 mg per day) or placebo. Generally, in the maintenance phase, patients continued on the same dose on which they were stabilized during the stabilization phase. The primary endpoint in this study was time to recurrence of a mood episode (manic, mixed or depressed episode) requiring intervention, which was defined as any of the following: discontinuation due to a mood episode, clinical intervention for a mood episode (e.g., initiation of medication or hospitalization), or Mania Rating Scale score ≥ 18 or a MADRS score ≥18 (on 2 consecutive assessments no more than 10 days apart). A total of 584 subjects were treated in the open-label stabilization period. In the double-blind randomization period, 127 subjects were treated with ziprasidone, and 112 subjects were treated with placebo. Ziprasidone was superior to placebo in increasing the time to recurrence of a mood episode. The types of relapse events observed included depressive, manic, and mixed episodes. Depressive, manic, and mixed episodes accounted for 53%, 34%, and 13%, respectively, of the total number of relapse events in the study. 14.3 Acute Treatment of Agitation in Schizophrenia The efficacy of intramuscular ziprasidone in the management of agitated schizophrenic patients was established in two short-term, double-blind trials of schizophrenic subjects who were considered by the investigators to be "acutely agitated" and in need of IM antipsychotic medication. In addition, patients were required to have a score of 3 or more on at least 3 of the following items of the PANSS: anxiety, tension, hostility and excitement. Efficacy was evaluated by analysis of the area under the curve (AUC) of the Behavioural Activity Rating Scale (BARS) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) severity rating. The BARS is a seven point scale with scores ranging from 1 (difficult or unable to rouse) to 7 (violent, requires restraint). Patients' scores on the BARS at baseline were mostly 5 (signs of overt activity [physical or verbal], calms down with instructions) and as determined by investigators, exhibited a degree of agitation that warranted intramuscular therapy. There were few patients with a rating higher than 5 on the BARS, as the most severely agitated patients were generally unable to provide informed consent for participation in premarketing clinical trials. Both studies compared higher doses of ziprasidone intramuscular with a 2 mg control dose. In one study, the higher dose was 20 mg, which could be given up to 4 times in the 24 hours of the study, at interdose intervals of no less than 4 hours. In the other study, the higher dose was 10 mg, which could be given up to 4 times in the 24 hours of the study, at interdose intervals of no less than 2 hours. The results of the intramuscular ziprasidone trials follow: (1)In a one-day, double-blind, randomized trial (n=79) involving doses of ziprasidone intramuscular of 20 mg or 2 mg, up to QID, ziprasidone intramuscular 20 mg was statistically superior to ziprasidone intramuscular 2 mg, as assessed by AUC of the BARS at 0 to 4 hours, and by CGI severity at 4 hours and study endpoint. (2)In another one-day, double-blind, randomized trial (n=117) involving doses of ziprasidone intramuscular of 10 mg or 2 mg, up to QID, ziprasidone intramuscular 10 mg was statistically superior to ziprasidone intramuscular 2 mg, as assessed by AUC of the BARS at 0 to 2 hours, but not by CGI severity.

Warnings And Cautions

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS QT Interval Prolongation: GEODON use should be avoided in patients with bradycardia, hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia, congenital prolongation of the QT interval, or in combination with other drugs that have demonstrated QT prolongation. (5.2) Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS): Potentially fatal symptom complex has been reported with antipsychotic drugs. Manage with immediate discontinuation of drug and close monitoring. (5.3) Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions, such as Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome has been reported with ziprasidone exposure. DRESS and other Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions (SCAR) are sometimes fatal. Discontinue GEODON if DRESS or SCAR are suspected.(5.4) Tardive Dyskinesia: May develop acutely or chronically. (5.5) Metabolic Changes: Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been associated with metabolic changes that may increase cardiovascular/ cerebrovascular risk. These metabolic changes include hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and weight gain. (5.6) Hyperglycemia and Diabetes Mellitus (DM): Monitor all patients for symptoms of hyperglycemia including polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, and weakness. Patients with DM risk factors should undergo blood glucose testing before and during treatment. (5.6) Dyslipidemia: Undesirable alterations have been observed in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. (5.6) Weight Gain: Weight gain has been reported. Monitor weight gain. (5.6) Rash: Discontinue in patients who develop a rash without an identified cause. (5.7) Orthostatic Hypotension: Use with caution in patients with known cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease. (5.8) Leukopenia, Neutropenia, and Agranulocytosis has been reported with antipsychotics. Patients with a pre-existing low white blood cell count (WBC) or a history of leukopenia/neutropenia should have their complete blood count (CBC) monitored frequently during the first few months of therapy and should discontinue Geodon at the first sign of a decline in WBC in the absence of other causative factors. (5.10) Seizures: Use cautiously in patients with a history of seizures or with conditions that lower seizure threshold. (5.11) Potential for Cognitive and Motor impairment: Patients should use caution when operating machinery. (5.14) Suicide: Closely supervise high-risk patients. (5.17) 5.1 Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. GEODON is not approved for the treatment of dementia-related psychosis. [see Boxed Warning] 5.2 QT Prolongation and Risk of Sudden Death Ziprasidone use should be avoided in combination with other drugs that are known to prolong the QTc interval [see Contraindications (4.1), Drug Interactions (7.4)]. Additionally, clinicians should be alert to the identification of other drugs that have been consistently observed to prolong the QTc interval. Such drugs should not be prescribed with ziprasidone. Ziprasidone should also be avoided in patients with congenital long QT syndrome and in patients with a history of cardiac arrhythmias [see Contraindications (4)]. A study directly comparing the QT/QTc prolonging effect of oral ziprasidone with several other drugs effective in the treatment of schizophrenia was conducted in patient volunteers. In the first phase of the trial, ECGs were obtained at the time of maximum plasma concentration when the drug was administered alone. In the second phase of the trial, ECGs were obtained at the time of maximum plasma concentration while the drug was co-administered with an inhibitor of the CYP4503A4 metabolism of the drug. In the first phase of the study, the mean change in QTc from baseline was calculated for each drug, using a sample-based correction that removes the effect of heart rate on the QT interval. The mean increase in QTc from baseline for ziprasidone ranged from approximately 9 to 14 msec greater than for four of the comparator drugs (risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, and haloperidol), but was approximately 14 msec less than the prolongation observed for thioridazine. In the second phase of the study, the effect of ziprasidone on QTc length was not augmented by the presence of a metabolic inhibitor (ketoconazole 200 mg twice daily). In placebo-controlled trials, oral ziprasidone increased the QTc interval compared to placebo by approximately 10 msec at the highest recommended daily dose of 160 mg. In clinical trials with oral ziprasidone, the electrocardiograms of 2/2988 (0.06%) patients who received GEODON and 1/440 (0.23%) patients who received placebo revealed QTc intervals exceeding the potentially clinically relevant threshold of 500 msec. In the ziprasidone-treated patients, neither case suggested a role of ziprasidone. One patient had a history of prolonged QTc and a screening measurement of 489 msec; QTc was 503 msec during ziprasidone treatment. The other patient had a QTc of 391 msec at the end of treatment with ziprasidone and upon switching to thioridazine experienced QTc measurements of 518 and 593 msec. Some drugs that prolong the QT/QTc interval have been associated with the occurrence of torsade de pointes and with sudden unexplained death. The relationship of QT prolongation to torsade de pointes is clearest for larger increases (20 msec and greater) but it is possible that smaller QT/QTc prolongations may also increase risk, or increase it in susceptible individuals. Although torsade de pointes has not been observed in association with the use of ziprasidone in premarketing studies and experience is too limited to rule out an increased risk, there have been rare post-marketing reports (in the presence of multiple confounding factors) [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. A study evaluating the QT/QTc prolonging effect of intramuscular ziprasidone, with intramuscular haloperidol as a control, was conducted in patient volunteers. In the trial, ECGs were obtained at the time of maximum plasma concentration following two injections of ziprasidone (20 mg then 30 mg) or haloperidol (7.5 mg then 10 mg) given four hours apart. Note that a 30 mg dose of intramuscular ziprasidone is 50% higher than the recommended therapeutic dose. The mean change in QTc from baseline was calculated for each drug, using a sample-based correction that removes the effect of heart rate on the QT interval. The mean increase in QTc from baseline for ziprasidone was 4.6 msec following the first injection and 12.8 msec following the second injection. The mean increase in QTc from baseline for haloperidol was 6.0 msec following the first injection and 14.7 msec following the second injection. In this study, no patients had a QTc interval exceeding 500 msec. As with other antipsychotic drugs and placebo, sudden unexplained deaths have been reported in patients taking ziprasidone at recommended doses. The premarketing experience for ziprasidone did not reveal an excess risk of mortality for ziprasidone compared to other antipsychotic drugs or placebo, but the extent of exposure was limited, especially for the drugs used as active controls and placebo. Nevertheless, ziprasidone's larger prolongation of QTc length compared to several other antipsychotic drugs raises the possibility that the risk of sudden death may be greater for ziprasidone than for other available drugs for treating schizophrenia. This possibility needs to be considered in deciding among alternative drug products [see Indications and Usage (1)]. Certain circumstances may increase the risk of the occurrence of torsade de pointes and/or sudden death in association with the use of drugs that prolong the QTc interval, including (1) bradycardia; (2) hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia; (3) concomitant use of other drugs that prolong the QTc interval; and (4) presence of congenital prolongation of the QT interval. It is recommended that patients being considered for ziprasidone treatment who are at risk for significant electrolyte disturbances, hypokalemia in particular, have baseline serum potassium and magnesium measurements. Hypokalemia (and/or hypomagnesemia) may increase the risk of QT prolongation and arrhythmia. Hypokalemia may result from diuretic therapy, diarrhea, and other causes. Patients with low serum potassium and/or magnesium should be repleted with those electrolytes before proceeding with treatment. It is essential to periodically monitor serum electrolytes in patients for whom diuretic therapy is introduced during ziprasidone treatment. Persistently prolonged QTc intervals may also increase the risk of further prolongation and arrhythmia, but it is not clear that routine screening ECG measures are effective in detecting such patients. Rather, ziprasidone should be avoided in patients with histories of significant cardiovascular illness, e.g., QT prolongation, recent acute myocardial infarction, uncompensated heart failure, or cardiac arrhythmia. Ziprasidone should be discontinued in patients who are found to have persistent QTc measurements >500 msec. For patients taking ziprasidone who experience symptoms that could indicate the occurrence of torsade de pointes, e.g., dizziness, palpitations, or syncope, the prescriber should initiate further evaluation, e.g., Holter monitoring may be useful. 5.3 Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) A potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) has been reported in association with administration of antipsychotic drugs. Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and cardiac dysrhythmia). Additional signs may include elevated creatinine phosphokinase, myoglobinuria (rhabdomyolysis), and acute renal failure. The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. In arriving at a diagnosis, it is important to exclude cases where the clinical presentation includes both serious medical illness (e.g., pneumonia, systemic infection, etc.) and untreated or inadequately treated extrapyramidal signs and symptoms (EPS). Other important considerations in the differential diagnosis include central anticholinergic toxicity, heat stroke, drug fever, and primary central nervous system (CNS) pathology. The management of NMS should include: (1) immediate discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs and other drugs not essential to concurrent therapy; (2) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring; and (3) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems for which specific treatments are available. There is no general agreement about specific pharmacological treatment regimens for NMS. If a patient requires antipsychotic drug treatment after recovery from NMS, the potential reintroduction of drug therapy should be carefully considered. The patient should be carefully monitored, since recurrences of NMS have been reported. 5.4 Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) has been reported with Ziprasidone exposure. DRESS consists of a combination of three or more of the following: cutaneous reaction (such as rash or exfoliative dermatitis), eosinophilia, fever, lymphadenopathy and one or more systemic complications such as hepatitis, nephritis, pneumonitis, myocarditis, and pericarditis. DRESS is sometimes fatal. Discontinue ziprasidone if DRESS is suspected. Other severe cutaneous adverse reactions Other severe cutaneous adverse reactions, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, have been reported with ziprasidone exposure. Severe cutaneous adverse reactions are sometimes fatal. Discontinue ziprasidone if severe cutaneous adverse reactions are suspected. 5.5 Tardive Dyskinesia A syndrome of potentially irreversible, involuntary, dyskinetic movements may develop in patients undergoing treatment with antipsychotic drugs. Although the prevalence of the syndrome appears to be highest among the elderly, especially elderly women, it is impossible to rely upon prevalence estimates to predict, at the inception of antipsychotic treatment, which patients are likely to develop the syndrome. Whether antipsychotic drug products differ in their potential to cause tardive dyskinesia is unknown. The risk of developing tardive dyskinesia and the likelihood that it will become irreversible are believed to increase as the duration of treatment and the total cumulative dose of antipsychotic drugs administered to the patient increase. However, the syndrome can develop, although much less commonly, after relatively brief treatment periods at low doses. There is no known treatment for established cases of tardive dyskinesia, although the syndrome may remit, partially or completely, if antipsychotic treatment is withdrawn. Antipsychotic treatment itself, however, may suppress (or partially suppress) the signs and symptoms of the syndrome, and thereby may possibly mask the underlying process. The effect that symptomatic suppression has upon the long-term course of the syndrome is unknown. Given these considerations, ziprasidone should be prescribed in a manner that is most likely to minimize the occurrence of tardive dyskinesia. Chronic antipsychotic treatment should generally be reserved for patients who suffer from a chronic illness that (1) is known to respond to antipsychotic drugs, and (2) for whom alternative, equally effective, but potentially less harmful treatments are not available or appropriate. In patients who do require chronic treatment, the smallest dose and the shortest duration of treatment producing a satisfactory clinical response should be sought. The need for continued treatment should be reassessed periodically. If signs and symptoms of tardive dyskinesia appear in a patient on ziprasidone, drug discontinuation should be considered. However, some patients may require treatment with ziprasidone despite the presence of the syndrome. 5.6 Metabolic Changes Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been associated with metabolic changes that may increase cardiovascular/cerebrovascular risk. These metabolic changes include hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and body weight gain. While all of the drugs in the class have been shown to produce some metabolic changes, each drug has its own specific risk profile. Hyperglycemia and Diabetes Mellitus Hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus, in some cases extreme and associated with ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar coma or death, have been reported in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. There have been few reports of hyperglycemia or diabetes in patients treated with GEODON. Although fewer patients have been treated with GEODON, it is not known if this more limited experience is the sole reason for the paucity of such reports. Assessment of the relationship between atypical antipsychotic use and glucose abnormalities is complicated by the possibility of an increased background risk of diabetes mellitus in patients with schizophrenia and the increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus in the general population. Given these confounders, the relationship between atypical antipsychotic use and hyperglycemia-related adverse reactions is not completely understood. Precise risk estimates for hyperglycemia-related adverse reactions in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics are not available. Patients with an established diagnosis of diabetes mellitus who are started on atypical antipsychotics should be monitored regularly for worsening of glucose control. Patients with risk factors for diabetes mellitus (e.g., obesity, family history of diabetes) who are starting treatment with atypical antipsychotics should undergo fasting blood glucose testing at the beginning of treatment and periodically during treatment. Any patient treated with atypical antipsychotics should be monitored for symptoms of hyperglycemia including polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, and weakness. Patients who develop symptoms of hyperglycemia during treatment with atypical antipsychotics should undergo fasting blood glucose testing. In some cases, hyperglycemia has resolved when the atypical antipsychotic was discontinued; however, some patients required continuation of antidiabetic treatment despite discontinuation of the suspect drug. Pooled data from short-term, placebo-controlled studies in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are presented in Tables 1–4. Note that for the flexible dose studies in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, each subject is categorized as having received either low (20–40 mg BID) or high (60–80 mg BID) dose based on the subject's modal daily dose. In the tables showing categorical changes, the percentages (% column) are calculated as 100×(n/N). Table 1: Glucose"Random" glucose measurements—fasting/non-fasting status unknown Mean Change from Baseline in Short-Term (up to 6 weeks), Placebo-Controlled, Fixed-Dose, Oral Ziprasidone, Monotherapy Trials in Adult Patients with Schizophrenia Mean Random Glucose Change from Baseline mg/dL (N) Ziprasidone Placebo 5 mg BID 20 mg BID 40 mg BID 60 mg BID 80 mg BID 100 mg BID -1.1 (N=45) +2.4 (N=179) -0.2 (N=146) -0.5 (N=119) -1.7 (N=104) +4.1 (N=85) +1.4 (N=260) Table 2: Glucose"Random" glucose measurements – fasting/non-fasting status unknown Categorical Changes in Short-Term (up to 6 weeks), Placebo-Controlled, Fixed-Dose, Oral Ziprasidone, Monotherapy Trials in Adult Patients with Schizophrenia Laboratory Analyte Category Change (at least once) from Baseline Treatment Arm N n (%) Random Glucose Normal to High (<100 mg/dL to ≥126 mg/dL) Ziprasidone 438 77 (17.6%) Placebo 169 26 (15.4%) Borderline to High (≥100 mg/dL and <126 mg/dL to ≥126 mg/dL) Ziprasidone 159 54 (34.0%) Placebo 66 22 (33.3%) In long-term (at least 1 year), placebo-controlled, flexible-dose studies in schizophrenia, the mean change from baseline in random glucose for ziprasidone 20–40 mg BID was -3.4 mg/dL (N=122); for ziprasidone 60–80 mg BID was +1.3 mg/dL (N=10); and for placebo was +0.3 mg/dL (N=71). Table 3: GlucoseFasting Mean Change from Baseline in Short-Term (up to 6 weeks), Placebo-Controlled, Flexible-Dose, Oral Ziprasidone, Monotherapy Trials in Adult Patients with Bipolar Disorder Mean Fasting Glucose Change from Baseline mg/dL (N) Ziprasidone Placebo Low Dose: 20–40 mg BID High Dose: 60–80 mg BID +0.1 (N=206) +1.6 (N=166) +1.4 (N=287) Table 4: GlucoseFasting Categorical Changes in Short-Term (up to 6 weeks), Placebo-Controlled, Flexible-Dose, Oral Ziprasidone, Monotherapy Trials in Adult Patients with Bipolar Disorder Laboratory Analyte Category Change (at least once) from Baseline Treatment Arm N n (%) Fasting Glucose Normal to High (<100 mg/dL to ≥126 mg/dL) Ziprasidone 272 5 (1.8%) Placebo 210 2 (1.0%) Borderline to High (≥100 mg/dL and <126 mg/dL to ≥126 mg/dL) Ziprasidone 79 12 (15.2%) Placebo 71 7 (9.9%) Dyslipidemia Undesirable alterations in lipids have been observed in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. Pooled data from short-term, placebo-controlled studies in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are presented in Tables 5–8. Table 5: Lipid "Random" lipid measurements, fasting/non-fasting status unknown Mean Change from Baseline in Short-Term (up to 6 weeks), Placebo-Controlled, Fixed-Dose, Oral Ziprasidone Monotherapy Trials in Adult Patients with Schizophrenia Mean Lipid Change from Baseline mg/dL (N) Laboratory Analyte Ziprasidone Placebo 5 mg BID 20 mg BID 40 mg BID 60 mg BID 80 mg BID 100 mg BID Triglycerides -12.9 (N=45) -9.6 (N=181) -17.3 (N=146) -0.05 (N=120) -16.0 (N=104) +0.8 (N=85) -18.6 (N=260) Total Cholesterol -3.6 (N=45) -4.4 (N=181) -8.2 (N=147) -3.6 (N=120) -10.0 (N=104) -3.6 (N=85) -4.7 (N=261) Table 6: Lipid "Random" lipid measurements, fasting/non-fasting status unknown Categorical Changes in Short-Term (up to 6 weeks), Placebo-Controlled, Fixed-Dose, Oral Ziprasidone Monotherapy Trials in Adult Patients with Schizophrenia Laboratory Analyte Category Change (at least once) from Baseline Treatment Arm N n (%) Triglycerides Increase by ≥50 mg/dL Ziprasidone 681 232 (34.1%) Placebo 260 53 (20.4%) Normal to High (<150 mg/dL to ≥200 mg/dL) Ziprasidone 429 63 (14.7%) Placebo 152 12 (7.9%) Borderline to High (≥150 mg/dL and <200 mg/dL to ≥200 mg/dL) Ziprasidone 92 43 (46.7%) Placebo 41 12 (29.3%) Total Cholesterol Increase by ≥40 mg/dL Ziprasidone 682 76 (11.1%) Placebo 261 26 (10.0%) Normal to High (<200 mg/dL to ≥240 mg/dL) Ziprasidone 380 15 (3.9%) Placebo 145 0 (0.0%) Borderline to High (≥200 mg/dL and <240 mg/dL to ≥240 mg/dL) Ziprasidone 207 56 (27.1%) Placebo 82 22 (26.8%) In long-term (at least 1 year), placebo-controlled, flexible-dose studies in schizophrenia, the mean change from baseline in random triglycerides for ziprasidone 20–40 mg BID was +26.3 mg/dL (N=15); for ziprasidone 60–80 mg BID was -39.3 mg/dL (N=10); and for placebo was +12.9 mg/dL (N=9). In long-term (at least 1 year), placebo-controlled, flexible-dose studies in schizophrenia, the mean change from baseline in random total cholesterol for ziprasidone 20–40 mg BID was +2.5 mg/dL (N=14); for ziprasidone 60–80 mg BID was -19.7 mg/dL (N=10); and for placebo was -28.0 mg/dL (N=9). Table 7: LipidFasting Mean Change from Baseline in Short-Term (up to 6 weeks), Placebo-Controlled, Flexible-Dose, Oral Ziprasidone Monotherapy Trials in Adult Patients with Bipolar Disorder Laboratory Analyte Mean Change from Baseline mg/dL (N) Ziprasidone Placebo Low Dose: 20–40 mg BID High Dose: 60–80 mg BID Fasting Triglycerides +0.95 (N=206) -3.5 (N=165) +8.6 (N=286) Fasting Total Cholesterol -2.8 (N=206) -3.4 (N=165) -1.6 (N=286) Fasting LDL Cholesterol -3.0 (N=201) -3.1 (N=158) -1.97 (N=270) Fasting HDL cholesterol -0.09 (N=206) +0.3 (N=165) -0.9 (N=286) Table 8: LipidFasting Categorical Changes in Short-Term (up to 6 weeks), Placebo-Controlled, Flexible-Dose, Oral Ziprasidone Monotherapy Trials in Adult Patients with Bipolar Disorder Laboratory Analyte Category Change (at least once) from Baseline Treatment Arm N n (%) Fasting Triglycerides Increase by ≥50 mg/dL Ziprasidone 371 66 (17.8%) Placebo 286 62 (21.7%) Normal to High (<150 mg/dL to ≥200 mg/dL) Ziprasidone 225 15 (6.7%) Placebo 179 13 (7.3%) Borderline to High (≥150 mg/dL and <200 mg/dL to ≥200 mg/dL) Ziprasidone 58 16 (27.6%) Placebo 47 14 (29.8%) Fasting Total Cholesterol Increase by ≥40 mg/dL Ziprasidone 371 30 (8.1%) Placebo 286 13 (4.5%) Normal to High (<200 mg/dL to ≥240 mg/dL) Ziprasidone 204 5 (2.5%) Placebo 151 2 (1.3%) Borderline to High (≥200 mg/dL and <240 mg/dL to ≥240 mg/dL) Ziprasidone 106 10 (9.4%) Placebo 87 15 (17.2%) Fasting LDL Cholesterol Increase by ≥30 mg/dL Ziprasidone 359 39 (10.9%) Placebo 270 17 (6.3%) Normal to High (<100 mg/dL to ≥160 mg/dL) Ziprasidone 115 0 (0%) Placebo 89 1 (1.1%) Borderline to High (≥100 mg/dL and <160 mg/dL to ≥160 mg/dL) Ziprasidone 193 18 (9.3%) Placebo 141 14 (9.9%) Fasting HDL Normal (>=40 mg/dL) to Low (<40 mg/dL) Ziprasidone 283 22 (7.8%) Placebo 220 24 (10.9%) Weight Gain Weight gain has been observed with atypical antipsychotic use. Monitoring of weight is recommended. Pooled data from short-term, placebo-controlled studies in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are presented in Tables 9–10. Table 9: Weight Mean Changes in Short-Term (up to 6 weeks), Placebo-Controlled, Fixed-Dose, Oral Ziprasidone Monotherapy Trials in Adult Patients with Schizophrenia Ziprasidone Placebo 5 mg BID 20 mg BID 40 mg BID 60 mg BID 80 mg BID 100 mg BID Mean Weight (kg) Changes from Baseline (N) +0.3 (N=40) +1.0 (N=167) +1.0 (N=135) +0.7 (N=109) +1.1 (N=97) +0.9 (N=74) -0.4 (227) Proportion of Patients with ≥7% Increase in Weight from Baseline (N) 0.0% (N=40) 9.0% (N=167) 10.4% (N=135) 7.3% (N=109) 15.5% (N=97) 10.8% (N=74) 4.0% (N=227) In long-term (at least 1 year), placebo-controlled, flexible-dose studies in schizophrenia, the mean change from baseline weight for ziprasidone 20–40 mg BID was -2.3 kg (N=124); for ziprasidone 60–80 mg BID was +2.5 kg (N=10); and for placebo was -2.9 kg (N=72). In the same long-term studies, the proportion of subjects with ≥ 7% increase in weight from baseline for ziprasidone 20–40 mg BID was 5.6% (N=124); for ziprasidone 60–80 mg BID was 20.0% (N=10), and for placebo was 5.6% (N=72). In a long-term (at least 1 year), placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study in schizophrenia, the mean change from baseline weight for ziprasidone 20 mg BID was -2.6 kg (N=72); for ziprasidone 40 mg BID was -3.3 kg (N=69); for ziprasidone 80 mg BID was -2.8 kg (N=70) and for placebo was -3.8 kg (N=70). In the same long-term fixed-dose schizophrenia study, the proportion of subjects with ≥ 7% increase in weight from baseline for ziprasidone 20 mg BID was 5.6% (N=72); for ziprasidone 40 mg BID was 2.9% (N=69); for ziprasidone 80 mg BID was 5.7% (N=70) and for placebo was 2.9% (N=70). Table 10: Summary of Weight Change in Short-Term (up to 6 weeks), Placebo-Controlled, Flexible-Dose, Oral Ziprasidone Monotherapy Trials in Adult Patients with Bipolar Disorder: Ziprasidone Placebo Low Dose: 20–40 mg BID High DoseNote that in the High Dose group, there were 2 subjects with modal 200 mg total daily dose and 1 subject with modal 100 mg total daily dose.: 60–80 mg BID Mean Weight (kg) Changes from Baseline (N) +0.4 (N=295) +0.4 (N=388) +0.1 (N=451) Proportion of Patients with ≥ 7% Increase in Weight from Baseline (N) 2.4% (N=295) 4.4% (N=388) 1.8% (N=451) Schizophrenia - The proportions of patients meeting a weight gain criterion of ≥ 7% of body weight were compared in a pool of four 4- and 6-week placebo-controlled schizophrenia clinical trials, revealing a statistically significantly greater incidence of weight gain for ziprasidone (10%) compared to placebo (4%). A median weight gain of 0.5 kg was observed in ziprasidone patients compared to no median weight change in placebo patients. In this set of clinical trials, weight gain was reported as an adverse reaction in 0.4% and 0.4% of ziprasidone and placebo patients, respectively. During long-term therapy with ziprasidone, a categorization of patients at baseline on the basis of body mass index (BMI) revealed the greatest mean weight gain and highest incidence of clinically significant weight gain (> 7% of body weight) in patients with low BMI (<23) compared to normal (23–27) or overweight patients (>27). There was a mean weight gain of 1.4 kg for those patients with a "low" baseline BMI, no mean change for patients with a "normal" BMI, and a 1.3 kg mean weight loss for patients who entered the program with a "high" BMI. Bipolar Disorder – During a 6-month placebo-controlled bipolar maintenance study in adults with ziprasidone as an adjunct to lithium or valproate, the incidence of clinically significant weight gain (≥ 7% of body weight) during the double-blind period was 5.6% for both ziprasidone and placebo treatment groups who completed the 6 months of observation for relapse. Interpretation of these findings should take into consideration that only patients who adequately tolerated ziprasidone entered the double-blind phase of the study, and there were substantial dropouts during the open label phase. 5.7 Rash In premarketing trials with ziprasidone, about 5% of patients developed rash and/or urticaria, with discontinuation of treatment in about one-sixth of these cases. The occurrence of rash was related to dose of ziprasidone, although the finding might also be explained by the longer exposure time in the higher dose patients. Several patients with rash had signs and symptoms of associated systemic illness, e.g., elevated WBCs. Most patients improved promptly with adjunctive treatment with antihistamines or steroids and/or upon discontinuation of ziprasidone, and all patients experiencing these reactions were reported to recover completely. Upon appearance of rash for which an alternative etiology cannot be identified, ziprasidone should be discontinued. 5.8 Orthostatic Hypotension Ziprasidone may induce orthostatic hypotension associated with dizziness, tachycardia, and, in some patients, syncope, especially during the initial dose-titration period, probably reflecting its α1-adrenergic antagonist properties. Syncope was reported in 0.6% of the patients treated with ziprasidone. Ziprasidone should be used with particular caution in patients with known cardiovascular disease (history of myocardial infarction or ischemic heart disease, heart failure or conduction abnormalities), cerebrovascular disease, or conditions which would predispose patients to hypotension (dehydration, hypovolemia, and treatment with antihypertensive medications). 5.9 Falls Antipsychotic drugs (which include GEODON) may cause somnolence, postural hypotension, and motor and sensory instability, which could lead to falls and, consequently, fractures or other injuries. For patients with diseases, conditions, or medications that could exacerbate these effects, complete fall risk assessments when initiating antipsychotic treatment and recurrently for patients on long-term antipsychotic therapy. 5.10 Leukopenia, Neutropenia, and Agranulocytosis In clinical trial and postmarketing experience, events of leukopenia/neutropenia have been reported temporally related to antipsychotic agents. Agranulocytosis (including fatal cases) has also been reported. Possible risk factors for leukopenia/neutropenia include pre-existing low white blood cell count (WBC) and history of drug induced leukopenia/neutropenia. Patients with a pre-existing low WBC or a history of drug induced leukopenia/neutropenia should have their complete blood count (CBC) monitored frequently during the first few months of therapy and should discontinue Geodon at the first sign of decline in WBC in the absence of other causative factors. Patients with neutropenia should be carefully monitored for fever or other symptoms or signs of infection and treated promptly if such symptoms or signs occur. Patients with severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count <1000/mm3) should discontinue Geodon and have their WBC followed until recovery. 5.11 Seizures During clinical trials, seizures occurred in 0.4% of patients treated with ziprasidone. There were confounding factors that may have contributed to the occurrence of seizures in many of these cases. As with other antipsychotic drugs, ziprasidone should be used cautiously in patients with a history of seizures or with conditions that potentially lower the seizure threshold, e.g., Alzheimer's dementia. Conditions that lower the seizure threshold may be more prevalent in a population of 65 years or older. 5.12 Dysphagia Esophageal dysmotility and aspiration have been associated with antipsychotic drug use. Aspiration pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly patients, in particular those with advanced Alzheimer's dementia. Ziprasidone and other antipsychotic drugs should be used cautiously in patients at risk for aspiration pneumonia [see Boxed Warning]. 5.13 Hyperprolactinemia As with other drugs that antagonize dopamine D2 receptors, ziprasidone elevates prolactin levels in humans. Increased prolactin levels were also observed in animal studies with this compound, and were associated with an increase in mammary gland neoplasia in mice; a similar effect was not observed in rats [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)]. Tissue culture experiments indicate that approximately one-third of human breast cancers are prolactin-dependent in vitro, a factor of potential importance if the prescription of these drugs is contemplated in a patient with previously detected breast cancer. Neither clinical studies nor epidemiologic studies conducted to date have shown an association between chronic administration of this class of drugs and tumorigenesis in humans; the available evidence is considered too limited to be conclusive at this time. Although disturbances such as galactorrhea, amenorrhea, gynecomastia, and impotence have been reported with prolactin-elevating compounds, the clinical significance of elevated serum prolactin levels is unknown for most patients. Long-standing hyperprolactinemia when associated with hypogonadism may lead to decreased bone density. 5.14 Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment Somnolence was a commonly reported adverse reaction in patients treated with ziprasidone. In the 4- and 6-week placebo-controlled trials, somnolence was reported in 14% of patients on ziprasidone compared to 7% of placebo patients. Somnolence led to discontinuation in 0.3% of patients in short-term clinical trials. Since ziprasidone has the potential to impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills, patients should be cautioned about performing activities requiring mental alertness, such as operating a motor vehicle (including automobiles) or operating hazardous machinery until they are reasonably certain that ziprasidone therapy does not affect them adversely. 5.15 Priapism One case of priapism was reported in the premarketing database. While the relationship of the reaction to ziprasidone use has not been established, other drugs with alpha-adrenergic blocking effects have been reported to induce priapism, and it is possible that ziprasidone may share this capacity. Severe priapism may require surgical intervention. 5.16 Body Temperature Regulation Although not reported with ziprasidone in premarketing trials, disruption of the body's ability to reduce core body temperature has been attributed to antipsychotic agents. Appropriate care is advised when prescribing ziprasidone for patients who will be experiencing conditions which may contribute to an elevation in core body temperature, e.g., exercising strenuously, exposure to extreme heat, receiving concomitant medication with anticholinergic activity, or being subject to dehydration. 5.17 Suicide The possibility of a suicide attempt is inherent in psychotic illness or bipolar disorder, and close supervision of high-risk patients should accompany drug therapy. Prescriptions for ziprasidone should be written for the smallest quantity of capsules consistent with good patient management in order to reduce the risk of overdose. 5.18 Patients with concomitant illnesses Clinical experience with ziprasidone in patients with certain concomitant systemic illnesses is limited [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6),( 8.7)]. Ziprasidone has not been evaluated or used to any appreciable extent in patients with a recent history of myocardial infarction or unstable heart disease. Patients with these diagnoses were excluded from premarketing clinical studies. Because of the risk of QTc prolongation and orthostatic hypotension with ziprasidone, caution should be observed in cardiac patients. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2), (5.8)]. 5.19 Laboratory Tests Patients being considered for ziprasidone treatment that are at risk of significant electrolyte disturbances should have baseline serum potassium and magnesium measurements. Low serum potassium and magnesium should be replaced before proceeding with treatment. Patients who are started on diuretics during Ziprasidone therapy need periodic monitoring of serum potassium and magnesium. Ziprasidone should be discontinued in patients who are found to have persistent QTc measurements >500 msec [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

Overdosage

10 OVERDOSAGE 10.1 Human Experience In premarketing trials involving more than 5400 patients and/or normal subjects, accidental or intentional overdosage of oral ziprasidone was documented in 10 patients. All of these patients survived without sequelae. In the patient taking the largest confirmed amount, 3,240 mg, the only symptoms reported were minimal sedation, slurring of speech, and transitory hypertension (200/95). Adverse reactions reported with ziprasidone overdose included extrapyramidal symptoms, somnolence, tremor, and anxiety. [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)] 10.2 Management of Overdosage In case of acute overdosage, establish and maintain an airway and ensure adequate oxygenation and ventilation. Intravenous access should be established, and gastric lavage (after intubation, if patient is unconscious) and administration of activated charcoal together with a laxative should be considered. The possibility of obtundation, seizure, or dystonic reaction of the head and neck following overdose may create a risk of aspiration with induced emesis. Cardiovascular monitoring should commence immediately and should include continuous electrocardiographic monitoring to detect possible arrhythmias. If antiarrhythmic therapy is administered, disopyramide, procainamide, and quinidine carry a theoretical hazard of additive QT-prolonging effects that might be additive to those of ziprasidone. Hypotension and circulatory collapse should be treated with appropriate measures such as intravenous fluids. If sympathomimetic agents are used for vascular support, epinephrine and dopamine should not be used, since beta stimulation combined with α1 antagonism associated with ziprasidone may worsen hypotension. Similarly, it is reasonable to expect that the alpha-adrenergic-blocking properties of bretylium might be additive to those of ziprasidone, resulting in problematic hypotension. In cases of severe extrapyramidal symptoms, anticholinergic medication should be administered. There is no specific antidote to ziprasidone, and it is not dialyzable. The possibility of multiple drug involvement should be considered. Close medical supervision and monitoring should continue until the patient recovers.

Adverse Reactions

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS Commonly observed adverse reactions (incidence ≥5% and at least twice the incidence for placebo) were: Schizophrenia: Somnolence, respiratory tract infection. (6.1) Manic and Mixed Episodes Associated with Bipolar Disorder: Somnolence, extrapyramidal symptoms, dizziness, akathisia, abnormal vision, asthenia, vomiting. (6.1) Intramuscular administration (≥5% and at least twice the lowest intramuscular ziprasidone group): Headache, nausea, somnolence. (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Pfizer Inc at 1-800-438-1985 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Clinical trials for oral ziprasidone included approximately 5700 patients and/or normal subjects exposed to one or more doses of ziprasidone. Of these 5700, over 4800 were patients who participated in multiple-dose effectiveness trials, and their experience corresponded to approximately 1831 patient-years. These patients include: (1) 4331 patients who participated in multiple-dose trials, predominantly in schizophrenia, representing approximately 1698 patient-years of exposure as of February 5, 2000; and (2) 472 patients who participated in bipolar mania trials representing approximately 133 patient-years of exposure. An additional 127 patients with bipolar disorder participated in a long-term maintenance treatment study representing approximately 74.7 patient-years of exposure to ziprasidone. The conditions and duration of treatment with ziprasidone included open-label and double-blind studies, inpatient and outpatient studies, and short-term and longer-term exposure. Clinical trials for intramuscular ziprasidone included 570 patients and/or normal subjects who received one or more injections of ziprasidone. Over 325 of these subjects participated in trials involving the administration of multiple doses. Adverse reactions during exposure were obtained by collecting voluntarily reported adverse experiences, as well as results of physical examinations, vital signs, weights, laboratory analyses, ECGs, and results of ophthalmologic examinations. The stated frequencies of adverse reactions represent the proportion of individuals who experienced, at least once, a treatment-emergent adverse reaction of the type listed. A reaction was considered treatment emergent if it occurred for the first time or worsened while receiving therapy following baseline evaluation. Adverse Findings Observed in Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled Trials with Oral Ziprasidone The following findings are based on the short-term placebo-controlled premarketing trials for schizophrenia (a pool of two 6-week, and two 4-week fixed-dose trials) and bipolar mania (a pool of two 3-week flexible-dose trials) in which ziprasidone was administered in doses ranging from 10 to 200 mg/day. Commonly Observed Adverse Reactions in Short Term-Placebo-Controlled Trials The following adverse reactions were the most commonly observed adverse reactions associated with the use of ziprasidone (incidence of 5% or greater) and not observed at an equivalent incidence among placebo-treated patients (ziprasidone incidence at least twice that for placebo): Schizophrenia trials (see Table 11) Somnolence Respiratory Tract Infection Bipolar trials (see Table 12) Somnolence Extrapyramidal Symptoms which includes the following adverse reaction terms: extrapyramidal syndrome, hypertonia, dystonia, dyskinesia, hypokinesia, tremor, paralysis and twitching. None of these adverse reactions occurred individually at an incidence greater than 10% in bipolar mania trials. Dizziness which includes the adverse reaction terms dizziness and lightheadedness. Akathisia Abnormal Vision Asthenia Vomiting SCHIZOPHRENIA Adverse Reactions Associated with Discontinuation of Treatment in Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled Trials of Oral Ziprasidone Approximately 4.1% (29/702) of ziprasidone-treated patients in short-term, placebo-controlled studies discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction, compared with about 2.2% (6/273) on placebo. The most common reaction associated with dropout was rash, including 7 dropouts for rash among ziprasidone patients (1%) compared to no placebo patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]. Adverse Reactions Occurring at an Incidence of 2% or More Among Ziprasidone-Treated Patients in Short-Term, Oral, Placebo-Controlled Trials Table 11 enumerates the incidence, rounded to the nearest percent, of treatment-emergent adverse reactions that occurred during acute therapy (up to 6 weeks) in predominantly patients with schizophrenia, including only those reactions that occurred in 2% or more of patients treated with ziprasidone and for which the incidence in patients treated with ziprasidone was greater than the incidence in placebo-treated patients. Table 11: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reaction Incidence In Short-Term Oral Placebo-Controlled Trials – Schizophrenia Percentage of Patients Reporting Reaction Body System/Adverse Reaction Ziprasidone (N=702) Placebo (N=273) Body as a Whole Asthenia 5 3 Accidental Injury 4 2 Chest Pain 3 2 Cardiovascular Tachycardia 2 1 Digestive Nausea 10 7 Constipation 9 8 Dyspepsia 8 7 Diarrhea 5 4 Dry Mouth 4 2 Anorexia 2 1 Nervous Extrapyramidal SymptomsExtrapyramidal Symptoms includes the following adverse reaction terms: extrapyramidal syndrome, hypertonia, dystonia, dyskinesia, hypokinesia, tremor, paralysis and twitching. None of these adverse reactions occurred individually at an incidence greater than 5% in schizophrenia trials. 14 8 Somnolence 14 7 Akathisia 8 7 DizzinessDizziness includes the adverse reaction terms dizziness and lightheadedness. 8 6 Respiratory Respiratory Tract Infection 8 3 Rhinitis 4 2 Cough Increased 3 1 Skin and Appendages Rash 4 3 Fungal Dermatitis 2 1 Special Senses Abnormal Vision 3 2 Dose Dependency of Adverse Reactions in Short-Term, Fixed-Dose, Placebo-Controlled Trials An analysis for dose response in the schizophrenia 4-study pool revealed an apparent relation of adverse reaction to dose for the following reactions: asthenia, postural hypotension, anorexia, dry mouth, increased salivation, arthralgia, anxiety, dizziness, dystonia, hypertonia, somnolence, tremor, rhinitis, rash, and abnormal vision. Extrapyramidal Symptoms (EPS) - The incidence of reported EPS (which included the adverse reaction terms extrapyramidal syndrome, hypertonia, dystonia, dyskinesia, hypokinesia, tremor, paralysis and twitching) for ziprasidone-treated patients in the short-term, placebo-controlled schizophrenia trials was 14% vs. 8% for placebo. Objectively collected data from those trials on the Simpson-Angus Rating Scale (for EPS) and the Barnes Akathisia Scale (for akathisia) did not generally show a difference between ziprasidone and placebo. Dystonia - Class Effect: Symptoms of dystonia, prolonged abnormal contractions of muscle groups, may occur in susceptible individuals during the first few days of treatment. Dystonic symptoms include: spasm of the neck muscles, sometimes progressing to tightness of the throat, swallowing difficulty, difficulty breathing, and/or protrusion of the tongue. While these symptoms can occur at low doses, they occur more frequently and with greater severity with high potency and at higher doses of first generation antipsychotic drugs. An elevated risk of acute dystonia is observed in males and younger age groups. Vital Sign Changes - Ziprasidone is associated with orthostatic hypotension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8) ] ECG Changes - Ziprasidone is associated with an increase in the QTc interval [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. In the schizophrenia trials, ziprasidone was associated with a mean increase in heart rate of 1.4 beats per minute compared to a 0.2 beats per minute decrease among placebo patients. Other Adverse Reactions Observed During the Premarketing Evaluation of Oral Ziprasidone Following is a list of COSTART terms that reflect treatment-emergent adverse reactions as defined in the introduction to the ADVERSE REACTIONS section reported by patients treated with ziprasidone in schizophrenia trials at multiple doses >4 mg/day within the database of 3834 patients. All reported reactions are included except those already listed in Table 11 or elsewhere in labeling, those reaction terms that were so general as to be uninformative, reactions reported only once and that did not have a substantial probability of being acutely life-threatening, reactions that are part of the illness being treated or are otherwise common as background reactions, and reactions considered unlikely to be drug-related. It is important to emphasize that, although the reactions reported occurred during treatment with ziprasidone, they were not necessarily caused by it. Adverse reactions are further categorized by body system and listed in order of decreasing frequency according to the following definitions: Frequent - adverse reactions occurring in at least 1/100 patients (≥1.0% of patients) (only those not already listed in the tabulated results from placebo-controlled trials appear in this listing); Infrequent - adverse reactions occurring in 1/100 to 1/1000 patients (in 0.1–1.0% of patients) Rare – adverse reactions occurring in fewer than 1/1000 patients (<0.1% of patients). Body as a Whole Frequent abdominal pain, flu syndrome, fever, accidental fall, face edema, chills, photosensitivity reaction, flank pain, hypothermia, motor vehicle accident Cardiovascular System Frequent tachycardia, hypertension, postural hypotension Infrequent bradycardia, angina pectoris, atrial fibrillation Rare first degree AV block, bundle branch block, phlebitis, pulmonary embolus, cardiomegaly, cerebral infarct, cerebrovascular accident, deep thrombophlebitis, myocarditis, thrombophlebitis Digestive System Frequent anorexia, vomiting Infrequent rectal hemorrhage, dysphagia, tongue edema Rare gum hemorrhage, jaundice, fecal impaction, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase increased, hematemesis, cholestatic jaundice, hepatitis, hepatomegaly, leukoplakia of mouth, fatty liver deposit, melena Endocrine Rare hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, thyroiditis Hemic and Lymphatic System Infrequent anemia, ecchymosis, leukocytosis, leukopenia, eosinophilia, lymphadenopathy Rare thrombocytopenia, hypochromic anemia, lymphocytosis, monocytosis, basophilia, lymphedema, polycythemia, thrombocythemia Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders Infrequent thirst, transaminase increased, peripheral edema, hyperglycemia, creatine phosphokinase increased, alkaline phosphatase increased, hypercholesteremia, dehydration, lactic dehydrogenase increased, albuminuria, hypokalemia Rare BUN increased, creatinine increased, hyperlipemia, hypocholesteremia, hyperkalemia, hypochloremia, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hypoproteinemia, glucose tolerance decreased, gout, hyperchloremia, hyperuricemia, hypocalcemia, hypoglycemicreaction, hypomagnesemia, ketosis, respiratory alkalosis Musculoskeletal System Frequent myalgia Infrequent tenosynovitis Rare myopathy Nervous System Frequent agitation, extrapyramidal syndrome, tremor, dystonia, hypertonia, dyskinesia, hostility, twitching, paresthesia, confusion, vertigo, hypokinesia, hyperkinesia, abnormal gait, oculogyric crisis, hypesthesia, ataxia, amnesia, cogwheel rigidity, delirium, hypotonia, akinesia, dysarthria, withdrawal syndrome, buccoglossal syndrome, choreoathetosis, diplopia, incoordination, neuropathy Infrequent paralysis Rare myoclonus, nystagmus, torticollis, circumoral paresthesia, opisthotonos, reflexes increased, trismus Respiratory System Frequent dyspnea Infrequent pneumonia, epistaxis Rare hemoptysis, laryngismus Skin and Appendages Infrequent maculopapular rash, urticaria, alopecia, eczema, exfoliative dermatitis, contact dermatitis, vesiculobullous rash Special Senses Frequent fungal dermatitis Infrequent conjunctivitis, dry eyes, tinnitus, blepharitis, cataract, photophobia Rare eye hemorrhage, visual field defect, keratitis, keratoconjunctivitis Urogenital System Infrequent impotence, abnormal ejaculation, amenorrhea, hematuria, menorrhagia, female lactation, polyuria, urinary retention metrorrhagia, male sexual dysfunction, anorgasmia, glycosuria Rare gynecomastia, vaginal hemorrhage, nocturia, oliguria, female sexual dysfunction, uterine hemorrhage BIPOLAR DISORDER Acute Treatment of Manic or Mixed Episodes Adverse Reactions Associated with Discontinuation of Treatment in Short Term, Placebo-Controlled Trials Approximately 6.5% (18/279) of ziprasidone-treated patients in short-term, placebo-controlled studies discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction, compared with about 3.7% (5/136) on placebo. The most common reactions associated with dropout in the ziprasidone-treated patients were akathisia, anxiety, depression, dizziness, dystonia, rash and vomiting, with 2 dropouts for each of these reactions among ziprasidone patients (1%) compared to one placebo patient each for dystonia and rash (1%) and no placebo patients for the remaining adverse reactions. Adverse Reactions Occurring at an Incidence of 2% or More Among Ziprasidone-Treated Patients in Short-Term, Oral, Placebo-Controlled Trials Table 12 enumerates the incidence, rounded to the nearest percent, of treatment-emergent adverse reactions that occurred during acute therapy (up to 3 weeks) in patients with bipolar mania, including only those reactions that occurred in 2% or more of patients treated with ziprasidone and for which the incidence in patients treated with ziprasidone was greater than the incidence in placebo-treated patients. Table 12: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions Incidence In Short-Term Oral Placebo-Controlled Trials – Manic and Mixed Episodes Associated with Bipolar Disorder Percentage of Patients Reporting Reaction Body System/Adverse Reaction Ziprasidone (N=279) Placebo (N=136) Body as a Whole Headache 18 17 Asthenia 6 2 Accidental Injury 4 1 Cardiovascular Hypertension 3 2 Digestive Nausea 10 7 Diarrhea 5 4 Dry Mouth 5 4 Vomiting 5 2 Increased Salivation 4 0 Tongue Edema 3 1 Dysphagia 2 0 Musculoskeletal Myalgia 2 0 Nervous Somnolence 31 12 Extrapyramidal SymptomsExtrapyramidal Symptoms includes the following adverse reaction terms: extrapyramidal syndrome, hypertonia, dystonia, dyskinesia, hypokinesia, tremor, paralysis and twitching. None of these adverse reactions occurred individually at an incidence greater than 10% in bipolar mania trials. 31 12 DizzinessDizziness includes the adverse reaction terms dizziness and lightheadedness. 16 7 Akathisia 10 5 Anxiety 5 4 Hypesthesia 2 1 Speech Disorder 2 0 Respiratory Pharyngitis 3 1 Dyspnea 2 1 Skin and Appendages Fungal Dermatitis 2 1 Special Senses Abnormal Vision 6 3 Explorations for interactions on the basis of gender did not reveal any clinically meaningful differences in the adverse reaction occurrence on the basis of this demographic factor. INTRAMUSCULAR ZIPRASIDONE Adverse Reactions Occurring at an Incidence of 1% or More Among Ziprasidone-Treated Patients in Short-Term Trials of Intramuscular Ziprasidone Table 13 enumerates the incidence, rounded to the nearest percent, of treatment-emergent adverse reactions that occurred during acute therapy with intramuscular ziprasidone in 1% or more of patients. In these studies, the most commonly observed adverse reactions associated with the use of intramuscular ziprasidone (incidence of 5% or greater) and observed at a rate on intramuscular ziprasidone (in the higher dose groups) at least twice that of the lowest intramuscular ziprasidone group were headache (13%), nausea (12%), and somnolence (20%). Table 13: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reaction Incidence In Short-Term Fixed-Dose Intramuscular Trials Percentage of Patients Reporting Reaction Body System/Adverse Reaction Ziprasidone 2 mg (N=92) Ziprasidone 10 mg (N=63) Ziprasidone 20 mg (N=41) Body as a Whole Headache 3 13 5 Injection Site Pain 9 8 7 Asthenia 2 0 0 Abdominal Pain 0 2 0 Flu Syndrome 1 0 0 Back Pain 1 0 0 Cardiovascular Postural Hypotension 0 0 5 Hypertension 2 0 0 Bradycardia 0 0 2 Vasodilation 1 0 0 Digestive Nausea 4 8 12 Rectal Hemorrhage 0 0 2 Diarrhea 3 3 0 Vomiting 0 3 0 Dyspepsia 1 3 2 Anorexia 0 2 0 Constipation 0 0 2 Tooth Disorder 1 0 0 Dry Mouth 1 0 0 Nervous Dizziness 3 3 10 Anxiety 2 0 0 Insomnia 3 0 0 Somnolence 8 8 20 Akathisia 0 2 0 Agitation 2 2 0 Extrapyramidal Syndrome 2 0 0 Hypertonia 1 0 0 Cogwheel Rigidity 1 0 0 Paresthesia 0 2 0 Personality Disorder 0 2 0 Psychosis 1 0 0 Speech Disorder 0 2 0 Respiratory Rhinitis 1 0 0 Skin and Appendages Furunculosis 0 2 0 Sweating 0 0 2 Urogenital Dysmenorrhea 0 2 0 Priapism 1 0 0 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of GEODON. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Adverse reaction reports not listed above that have been received since market introduction include rare occurrences of the following : Cardiac Disorders: Tachycardia, torsade de pointes (in the presence of multiple confounding factors), [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]; Digestive System Disorders: Swollen Tongue; Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: Galactorrhea, priapism; Nervous System Disorders: Facial Droop, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, serotonin syndrome (alone or in combination with serotonergic medicinal products), tardive dyskinesia; Psychiatric Disorders: Insomnia, mania/hypomania; Skin and subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: Allergic reaction (such as allergic dermatitis, angioedema, orofacial edema, urticaria), rash, Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS); Urogenital System Disorders: Enuresis, urinary incontinence; Vascular Disorders: Postural hypotension, syncope.

Recent major changes

Warnings and Precautions (5.9) 2/2017

Mechanism

12.1 Mechanism of Action The mechanism of action of ziprasidone, as with other drugs having efficacy in schizophrenia, is unknown. However, it has been proposed that this drug's efficacy in schizophrenia is mediated through a combination of dopamine type 2 (D2) and serotonin type 2 (5HT2) antagonism. As with other drugs having efficacy in bipolar disorder, the mechanism of action of ziprasidone in bipolar disorder is unknown.

Contraindications

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Do not use in patients with a known history of QT prolongation (4.1) Do not use in patients with recent acute myocardial infarction (4.1) Do not use in patients with uncompensated heart failure (4.1) Do not use in combination with other drugs that have demonstrated QT prolongation (4.1) Do not use in patients with known hypersensitivity to ziprasidone (4.2) 4.1 QT Prolongation Because of ziprasidone's dose-related prolongation of the QT interval and the known association of fatal arrhythmias with QT prolongation by some other drugs, ziprasidone is contraindicated: in patients with a known history of QT prolongation (including congenital long QT syndrome) in patients with recent acute myocardial infarction in patients with uncompensated heart failure Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies between ziprasidone and other drugs that prolong the QT interval have not been performed. An additive effect of ziprasidone and other drugs that prolong the QT interval cannot be excluded. Therefore, ziprasidone should not be given with: dofetilide, sotalol, quinidine, other Class Ia and III anti-arrhythmics, mesoridazine, thioridazine, chlorpromazine, droperidol, pimozide, sparfloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, halofantrine, mefloquine, pentamidine, arsenic trioxide, levomethadyl acetate, dolasetron mesylate, probucol or tacrolimus. other drugs that have demonstrated QT prolongation as one of their pharmacodynamic effects and have this effect described in the full prescribing information as a contraindication or a boxed or bolded warning [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ]. 4.2 Hypersensitivity Ziprasidone is contraindicated in individuals with a known hypersensitivity to the product.

Nursing Mothers

8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether ziprasidone or its metabolites are excreted in human milk. It is recommended that women receiving ziprasidone should not breastfeed.