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Pregnancy

8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary PRAVACHOL is contraindicated for use in pregnant woman because of the potential for fetal harm. As safety in pregnant women has not been established and there is no apparent benefit to therapy with PRAVACHOL during pregnancy, PRAVACHOL should be immediately discontinued as soon as pregnancy is recognized [see Contraindications (4.3) ]. Limited published data on the use of PRAVACHOL in pregnant women are insufficient to determine a drug-associated risk of major congenital malformations or miscarriage. In animal reproduction studies, no evidence of fetal malformations was seen in rabbits or rats exposed to 10 times to 120 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 80 mg/day. Fetal skeletal abnormalities, offspring mortality, and developmental delays occurred when pregnant rats were administered 10 times to 12 times the MRHD during organogenesis to parturition [see Data]. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively. Data Human Data Limited published data on pravastatin have not shown an increased risk of major congenital malformations or miscarriage. Rare reports of congenital anomalies have been received following intrauterine exposure to other statins. In a review2 of approximately 100 prospectively followed pregnancies in women exposed to simvastatin or lovastatin, the incidences of congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortions, and fetal deaths/stillbirths did not exceed what would be expected in the general population. The number of cases is adequate to exclude a ≥3 to 4-fold increase in congenital anomalies over the background incidence. In 89% of the prospectively followed pregnancies, drug treatment was initiated prior to pregnancy and was discontinued at some point in the first trimester when pregnancy was identified. Animal Data Embryofetal and neonatal mortality was observed in rats given pravastatin during the period of organogenesis or during organogenesis continuing through weaning. In pregnant rats given oral gavage doses of 4, 20, 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg/day from gestation days 7 through 17 (organogenesis) increased mortality of offspring and increased cervical rib skeletal anomalies were observed at ≥100 mg/kg/day systemic exposure, 10 times the human exposure at 80 mg/day MRHD based on body surface area (mg/m2). In other studies, no teratogenic effects were observed when pravastatin was dosed orally during organogenesis in rabbits (gestation days 6 through 18) up to 50 mg/kg/day or in rats (gestation days 7 through 17) up to 1000 mg/kg/day. Exposures were 10 times (rabbit) or 120 times (rat) the human exposure at 80 mg/day MRHD based on body surface area (mg/m2). In pregnant rats given oral gavage doses of 10, 100, and 1000 mg/kg/day from gestation day 17 through lactation day 21 (weaning), increased mortality of offspring and developmental delays were observed at ≥100 mg/kg/day systemic exposure, corresponding to 12 times the human exposure at 80 mg/day MRHD, based on body surface area (mg/m2). In pregnant rats, pravastatin crosses the placenta and is found in fetal tissue at 30% of the maternal plasma levels following administration of a single dose of 20 mg/day orally on gestation day 18, which corresponds to exposure 2 times the MRHD of 80 mg daily based on body surface area (mg/m2). In lactating rats, up to 7 times higher levels of pravastatin are present in the breast milk than in the maternal plasma, which corresponds to exposure 2 times the MRHD of 80 mg/day based on body surface area (mg/m2).

Drug Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS For the concurrent therapy of either cyclosporine, fibrates, niacin (nicotinic acid), or erythromycin, the risk of myopathy increases [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. •Concomitant lipid-lowering therapies: use with fibrates or lipid-modifying doses (≥1 g/day) of niacin increases the risk of adverse skeletal muscle effects. Caution should be used when prescribing with PRAVACHOL. (7) •Cyclosporine: combination increases exposure. Limit pravastatin to 20 mg once daily. (2.6, 7.1) •Clarithromycin: combination increases exposure. Limit pravastatin to 40 mg once daily. (2.7, 7.2) 7.1 Cyclosporine The risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis is increased with concomitant administration of cyclosporine. Limit pravastatin to 20 mg once daily for concomitant use with cyclosporine [see Dosage and Administration (2.6) , Warnings and Precautions (5.1) , and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. 7.2 Clarithromycin and Other Macrolide Antibiotics The risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis is increased with concomitant administration of clarithromycin. Limit pravastatin to 40 mg once daily for concomitant use with clarithromycin [see Dosage and Administration (2.7) , Warnings and Precautions (5.1) , and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Other macrolides (e.g., erythromycin and azithromycin) have the potential to increase statin exposures while used in combination. Pravastatin should be used cautiously with macrolide antibiotics due to a potential increased risk of myopathies. 7.3 Colchicine The risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis is increased with concomitant administration of colchicine [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. 7.4 Gemfibrozil Due to an increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis when HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are coadministered with gemfibrozil, concomitant administration of PRAVACHOL with gemfibrozil should be avoided [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. 7.5 Other Fibrates Because it is known that the risk of myopathy during treatment with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors is increased with concurrent administration of other fibrates, PRAVACHOL should be administered with caution when used concomitantly with other fibrates [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. 7.6 Niacin The risk of skeletal muscle effects may be enhanced when pravastatin is used in combination with niacin; a reduction in PRAVACHOL dosage should be considered in this setting [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]., 7.1 Cyclosporine The risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis is increased with concomitant administration of cyclosporine. Limit pravastatin to 20 mg once daily for concomitant use with cyclosporine [see Dosage and Administration (2.6) , Warnings and Precautions (5.1) , and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]., 7.2 Clarithromycin and Other Macrolide Antibiotics The risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis is increased with concomitant administration of clarithromycin. Limit pravastatin to 40 mg once daily for concomitant use with clarithromycin [see Dosage and Administration (2.7) , Warnings and Precautions (5.1) , and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Other macrolides (e.g., erythromycin and azithromycin) have the potential to increase statin exposures while used in combination. Pravastatin should be used cautiously with macrolide antibiotics due to a potential increased risk of myopathies., 7.3 Colchicine The risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis is increased with concomitant administration of colchicine [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]., 7.4 Gemfibrozil Due to an increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis when HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are coadministered with gemfibrozil, concomitant administration of PRAVACHOL with gemfibrozil should be avoided [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]., 7.5 Other Fibrates Because it is known that the risk of myopathy during treatment with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors is increased with concurrent administration of other fibrates, PRAVACHOL should be administered with caution when used concomitantly with other fibrates [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]., 7.6 Niacin The risk of skeletal muscle effects may be enhanced when pravastatin is used in combination with niacin; a reduction in PRAVACHOL dosage should be considered in this setting [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]., and Drug-Drug Interactions Table 3: Effect of Coadministered Drugs on the Pharmacokinetics of Pravastatin Pravastatin Coadministered Drug and Dosing Regimen Dose (mg) Change in AUC Change in Cmax BID = twice daily; OD = once daily; QID = four times daily Cyclosporine 5 mg/kg single dose 40 mg single dose ↑282% ↑327% Clarithromycin 500 mg BID for 9 days 40 mg OD for 8 days ↑110% ↑128% Boceprevir 800 mg TID for 6 days 40 mg single dose ↑63% ↑49% Darunavir 600 mg BID/Ritonavir 100 mg BID for 7 days 40 mg single dose ↑81% ↑63% Colestipol 10 g single dose 20 mg single dose ↓47% ↓53% Cholestyramine 4 g single dose Administered simultaneously Administered 1 hour prior to cholestyramine Administered 4 hours after cholestyramine 20 mg single dose ↓40% ↑12% ↓12% ↓39% ↑30% ↓6.8% Cholestyramine 24 g OD for 4 weeks 20 mg BID for 8 weeks 5 mg BID for 8 weeks 10 mg BID for 8 weeks ↓51% ↓38% ↓18% ↑4.9% ↑23% ↓33% Fluconazole 200 mg IV for 6 days 200 mg PO for 6 days 20 mg PO+10 mg IV 20 mg PO+10 mg IV ↓34% ↓16% ↓33% ↓16% Kaletra 400 mg/100 mg BID for 14 days 20 mg OD for 4 days ↑33% ↑26% Verapamil IR 120 mg for 1 day and Verapamil ER 480 mg for 3 days 40 mg single dose ↑31% ↑42% Cimetidine 300 mg QID for 3 days 20 mg single dose ↑30% ↑9.8% Antacids 15 mL QID for 3 days 20 mg single dose ↓28% ↓24% Digoxin 0.2 mg OD for 9 days 20 mg OD for 9 days ↑23% ↑26% Probucol 500 mg single dose 20 mg single dose ↑14% ↑24% Warfarin 5 mg OD for 6 days 20 mg BID for 6 days ↓13% ↑6.7% Itraconazole 200 mg OD for 30 days 40 mg OD for 30 days ↑11% (compared to Day 1) ↑17% (compared to Day 1) Gemfibrozil 600 mg single dose 20 mg single dose ↓7.0% ↓20% Aspirin 324 mg single dose 20 mg single dose ↑4.7% ↑8.9% Niacin 1 g single dose 20 mg single dose ↓3.6% ↓8.2% Diltiazem 20 mg single dose ↑2.7% ↑30% Grapefruit juice 40 mg single dose ↓1.8% ↑3.7% Table 4: Effect of Pravastatin on the Pharmacokinetics of Coadministered Drugs Pravastatin Dosing Regimen Name and Dose Change in AUC Change in Cmax BID = twice daily; OD = once daily 20 mg BID for 6 days Warfarin 5 mg OD for 6 days Change in mean prothrombin time ↑17% ↑0.4 sec ↑15% 20 mg OD for 9 days Digoxin 0.2 mg OD for 9 days ↑4.6% ↑5.3% 20 mg BID for 4 weeks 10 mg BID for 4 weeks 5 mg BID for 4 weeks Antipyrine 1.2 g single dose ↑3.0% ↑1.6% ↑ Less than 1% Not Reported 20 mg OD for 4 days Kaletra 400 mg/100 mg BID for 14 days No change No change

Indications And Usage

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Therapy with lipid-altering agents should be only one component of multiple risk factor intervention in individuals at significantly increased risk for atherosclerotic vascular disease due to hypercholesterolemia. Drug therapy is indicated as an adjunct to diet when the response to a diet restricted in saturated fat and cholesterol and other nonpharmacologic measures alone has been inadequate. PRAVACHOL is an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) indicated as an adjunctive therapy to diet to: •Reduce the risk of MI, revascularization, and cardiovascular mortality in hypercholesterolemic patients without clinically evident CHD. (1.1) •Reduce the risk of total mortality by reducing coronary death, MI, revascularization, stroke/TIA, and the progression of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with clinically evident CHD. (1.1) •Reduce elevated Total-C, LDL-C, ApoB, and TG levels and to increase HDL-C in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia. (1.2) •Reduce elevated serum TG levels in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. (1.2) •Treat patients with primary dysbetalipoproteinemia who are not responding to diet. (1.2) •Treat children and adolescent patients ages 8 years and older with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia after failing an adequate trial of diet therapy. (1.2) Limitations of use: •PRAVACHOL has not been studied in Fredrickson Types I and V dyslipidemias. (1.3) 1.1 Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease In hypercholesterolemic patients without clinically evident coronary heart disease (CHD), PRAVACHOL (pravastatin sodium) is indicated to: •reduce the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). •reduce the risk of undergoing myocardial revascularization procedures. •reduce the risk of cardiovascular mortality with no increase in death from non-cardiovascular causes. In patients with clinically evident CHD, PRAVACHOL is indicated to: •reduce the risk of total mortality by reducing coronary death. •reduce the risk of MI. •reduce the risk of undergoing myocardial revascularization procedures. •reduce the risk of stroke and stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA). •slow the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. 1.2 Hyperlipidemia PRAVACHOL is indicated: •as an adjunct to diet to reduce elevated total cholesterol (Total-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and triglyceride (TG) levels and to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia (Fredrickson Types IIa and IIb).1 •as an adjunct to diet for the treatment of patients with elevated serum TG levels (Fredrickson Type IV). •for the treatment of patients with primary dysbetalipoproteinemia (Fredrickson Type III) who do not respond adequately to diet. •as an adjunct to diet and lifestyle modification for treatment of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) in children and adolescent patients ages 8 years and older if after an adequate trial of diet the following findings are present: a.LDL-C remains ≥190 mg/dL or b.LDL-C remains ≥160 mg/dL and: ▪there is a positive family history of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) or ▪two or more other CVD risk factors are present in the patient. 1.3 Limitations of Use PRAVACHOL has not been studied in conditions where the major lipoprotein abnormality is elevation of chylomicrons (Fredrickson Types I and V)., 1.1 Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease In hypercholesterolemic patients without clinically evident coronary heart disease (CHD), PRAVACHOL (pravastatin sodium) is indicated to: •reduce the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). •reduce the risk of undergoing myocardial revascularization procedures. •reduce the risk of cardiovascular mortality with no increase in death from non-cardiovascular causes. In patients with clinically evident CHD, PRAVACHOL is indicated to: •reduce the risk of total mortality by reducing coronary death. •reduce the risk of MI. •reduce the risk of undergoing myocardial revascularization procedures. •reduce the risk of stroke and stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA). •slow the progression of coronary atherosclerosis., 1.2 Hyperlipidemia PRAVACHOL is indicated: •as an adjunct to diet to reduce elevated total cholesterol (Total-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and triglyceride (TG) levels and to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia (Fredrickson Types IIa and IIb).1 •as an adjunct to diet for the treatment of patients with elevated serum TG levels (Fredrickson Type IV). •for the treatment of patients with primary dysbetalipoproteinemia (Fredrickson Type III) who do not respond adequately to diet. •as an adjunct to diet and lifestyle modification for treatment of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) in children and adolescent patients ages 8 years and older if after an adequate trial of diet the following findings are present: a.LDL-C remains ≥190 mg/dL or b.LDL-C remains ≥160 mg/dL and: ▪there is a positive family history of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) or ▪two or more other CVD risk factors are present in the patient., and 1.3 Limitations of Use PRAVACHOL has not been studied in conditions where the major lipoprotein abnormality is elevation of chylomicrons (Fredrickson Types I and V).

Clinical Studies

14 CLINICAL STUDIES 14.1 Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease In the Pravastatin Primary Prevention Study (WOS),3 the effect of PRAVACHOL on fatal and nonfatal CHD was assessed in 6595 men 45 to 64 years of age, without a previous MI, and with LDL-C levels between 156 to 254 mg/dL (4-6.7 mmol/L). In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients were treated with standard care, including dietary advice, and either PRAVACHOL 40 mg daily (N=3302) or placebo (N=3293) and followed for a median duration of 4.8 years. Median (25th, 75th percentile) percent changes from baseline after 6 months of pravastatin treatment in Total-C, LDL-C, TG, and HDL-C were −20.3 (−26.9, −11.7), −27.7 (−36.0, −16.9), −9.1 (−27.6, 12.5), and 6.7 (−2.1, 15.6), respectively. PRAVACHOL significantly reduced the rate of first coronary events (either CHD death or nonfatal MI) by 31% (248 events in the placebo group [CHD death=44, nonfatal MI=204] versus 174 events in the PRAVACHOL group [CHD death=31, nonfatal MI=143], p=0.0001 [see figure below]). The risk reduction with PRAVACHOL was similar and significant throughout the entire range of baseline LDL cholesterol levels. This reduction was also similar and significant across the age range studied with a 40% risk reduction for patients younger than 55 years and a 27% risk reduction for patients 55 years and older. The Pravastatin Primary Prevention Study included only men, and therefore it is not clear to what extent these data can be extrapolated to a similar population of female patients. PRAVACHOL also significantly decreased the risk for undergoing myocardial revascularization procedures (coronary artery bypass graft [CABG] surgery or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty [PTCA]) by 37% (80 vs 51 patients, p=0.009) and coronary angiography by 31% (128 vs 90, p=0.007). Cardiovascular deaths were decreased by 32% (73 vs 50, p=0.03) and there was no increase in death from non-cardiovascular causes. Image Pravachol Figure 1 14.2 Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events In the LIPID4 study, the effect of PRAVACHOL, 40 mg daily, was assessed in 9014 patients (7498 men; 1516 women; 3514 elderly patients [age ≥65 years]; 782 diabetic patients) who had experienced either an MI (5754 patients) or had been hospitalized for unstable angina pectoris (3260 patients) in the preceding 3 to 36 months. Patients in this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study participated for an average of 5.6 years (median of 5.9 years) and at randomization had Total-C between 114 and 563 mg/dL (mean 219 mg/dL), LDL-C between 46 and 274 mg/dL (mean 150 mg/dL), TG between 35 and 2710 mg/dL (mean 160 mg/dL), and HDL-C between 1 and 103 mg/dL (mean 37 mg/dL). At baseline, 82% of patients were receiving aspirin and 76% were receiving antihypertensive medication. Treatment with PRAVACHOL significantly reduced the risk for total mortality by reducing coronary death (see Table 5). The risk reduction due to treatment with PRAVACHOL on CHD mortality was consistent regardless of age. PRAVACHOL significantly reduced the risk for total mortality (by reducing CHD death) and CHD events (CHD mortality or nonfatal MI) in patients who qualified with a history of either MI or hospitalization for unstable angina pectoris. Table 5: LIPID - Primary and Secondary Endpoints Number (%) of Subjects Event Pravastatin 40 mg (N=4512) Placebo (N=4502) Risk Reduction p-value Primary Endpoint CHD mortality 287 (6.4) 373 (8.3) 24% 0.0004 Secondary Endpoints Total mortality 498 (11.0) 633 (14.1) 23% <0.0001 CHD mortality or nonfatal MI 557 (12.3) 715 (15.9) 24% <0.0001 Myocardial revascularization procedures (CABG or PTCA) 584 (12.9) 706 (15.7) 20% <0.0001 Stroke All-cause 169 (3.7) 204 (4.5) 19% 0.0477 Non-hemorrhagic 154 (3.4) 196 (4.4) 23% 0.0154 Cardiovascular mortality 331 (7.3) 433 (9.6) 25% <0.0001 In the CARE5 study, the effect of PRAVACHOL, 40 mg daily, on CHD death and nonfatal MI was assessed in 4159 patients (3583 men and 576 women) who had experienced a MI in the preceding 3 to 20 months and who had normal (below the 75th percentile of the general population) plasma total cholesterol levels. Patients in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study participated for an average of 4.9 years and had a mean baseline Total-C of 209 mg/dL. LDL-C levels in this patient population ranged from 101 to 180 mg/dL (mean 139 mg/dL). At baseline, 84% of patients were receiving aspirin and 82% were taking antihypertensive medications. Median (25th, 75th percentile) percent changes from baseline after 6 months of pravastatin treatment in Total-C, LDL-C, TG, and HDL-C were −22.0 (−28.4, −14.9), −32.4 (−39.9, −23.7), −11.0 (−26.5, 8.6), and 5.1 (−2.9, 12.7), respectively. Treatment with PRAVACHOL significantly reduced the rate of first recurrent coronary events (either CHD death or nonfatal MI), the risk of undergoing revascularization procedures (PTCA, CABG), and the risk for stroke or TIA (see Table 6). Table 6: CARE - Primary and Secondary Endpoints Number (%) of Subjects Event Pravastatin 40 mg (N=2081) Placebo (N=2078) Risk Reduction p-value a The risk reduction due to treatment with PRAVACHOL was consistent in both sexes. Primary Endpoint CHD mortality or nonfatal MIa 212 (10.2) 274 (13.2) 24% 0.003 Secondary Endpoints Myocardial revascularization procedures (CABG or PTCA) 294 (14.1) 391 (18.8) 27% <0.001 Stroke or TIA 93 (4.5) 124 (6.0) 26% 0.029 In the PLAC I6 study, the effect of pravastatin therapy on coronary atherosclerosis was assessed by coronary angiography in patients with coronary disease and moderate hypercholesterolemia (baseline LDL-C range: 130-190 mg/dL). In this double-blind, multicenter, controlled clinical trial, angiograms were evaluated at baseline and at 3 years in 264 patients. Although the difference between pravastatin and placebo for the primary endpoint (per-patient change in mean coronary artery diameter) and 1 of 2 secondary endpoints (change in percent lumen diameter stenosis) did not reach statistical significance, for the secondary endpoint of change in minimum lumen diameter, statistically significant slowing of disease was seen in the pravastatin treatment group (p=0.02). In the REGRESS7 study, the effect of pravastatin on coronary atherosclerosis was assessed by coronary angiography in 885 patients with angina pectoris, angiographically documented coronary artery disease, and hypercholesterolemia (baseline total cholesterol range: 160-310 mg/dL). In this double-blind, multicenter, controlled clinical trial, angiograms were evaluated at baseline and at 2 years in 653 patients (323 treated with pravastatin). Progression of coronary atherosclerosis was significantly slowed in the pravastatin group as assessed by changes in mean segment diameter (p=0.037) and minimum obstruction diameter (p=0.001). Analysis of pooled events from PLAC I, PLAC II,8 REGRESS, and KAPS9 studies (combined N=1891) showed that treatment with pravastatin was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the composite event rate of fatal and nonfatal MI (46 events or 6.4% for placebo versus 21 events or 2.4% for pravastatin, p=0.001). The predominant effect of pravastatin was to reduce the rate of nonfatal MI. 14.3 Primary Hypercholesterolemia (Fredrickson Types IIa and IIb) PRAVACHOL is highly effective in reducing Total-C, LDL-C, and TG in patients with heterozygous familial, presumed familial combined, and non-familial (non-FH) forms of primary hypercholesterolemia, and mixed dyslipidemia. A therapeutic response is seen within 1 week, and the maximum response usually is achieved within 4 weeks. This response is maintained during extended periods of therapy. In addition, PRAVACHOL is effective in reducing the risk of acute coronary events in hypercholesterolemic patients with and without previous MI. A single daily dose is as effective as the same total daily dose given twice a day. In multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of patients with primary hypercholesterolemia, treatment with pravastatin in daily doses ranging from 10 to 40 mg consistently and significantly decreased Total-C, LDL-C, TG, and Total-C/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios (see Table 7). In a pooled analysis of 2 multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of patients with primary hypercholesterolemia, treatment with pravastatin at a daily dose of 80 mg (N=277) significantly decreased Total-C, LDL-C, and TG. The 25th and 75th percentile changes from baseline in LDL-C for pravastatin 80 mg were −43% and −30%. The efficacy results of the individual studies were consistent with the pooled data (see Table 7). Treatment with PRAVACHOL modestly decreased VLDL-C and PRAVACHOL across all doses produced variable increases in HDL-C (see Table 7). Table 7: Primary Hypercholesterolemia Studies: Dose Response of PRAVACHOL Once Daily Administration a A multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. b Pooled analysis of 2 multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. Dose Total-C LDL-C HDL-C TG Mean Percent Changes From Baseline After 8 Weeksa Placebo (N=36) −3% −4% +1% −4% 10 mg (N=18) −16% −22% +7% −15% 20 mg (N=19) −24% −32% +2% −11% 40 mg (N=18) −25% −34% +12% −24% Mean Percent Changes From Baseline After 6 Weeksb Placebo (N=162) 0% −1% −1% +1% 80 mg (N=277) −27% −37% +3% −19% In another clinical trial, patients treated with pravastatin in combination with cholestyramine (70% of patients were taking cholestyramine 20 or 24 g per day) had reductions equal to or greater than 50% in LDL-C. Furthermore, pravastatin attenuated cholestyramine-induced increases in TG levels (which are themselves of uncertain clinical significance). 14.4 Hypertriglyceridemia (Fredrickson Type IV) The response to pravastatin in patients with Type IV hyperlipidemia (baseline TG >200 mg/dL and LDL-C <160 mg/dL) was evaluated in a subset of 429 patients from the CARE study. For pravastatin-treated subjects, the median (min, max) baseline TG level was 246.0 (200.5, 349.5) mg/dL (see Table 8). Table 8: Patients with Fredrickson Type IV Hyperlipidemia Median (25th, 75th percentile) % Change from Baseline Pravastatin 40 mg (N=429) Placebo (N=430) TG −21.1 (−34.8, 1.3) −6.3 (−23.1, 18.3) Total-C −22.1 (−27.1, −14.8) 0.2 (−6.9, 6.8) LDL-C −31.7 (−39.6, −21.5) 0.7 (−9.0, 10.0) HDL-C 7.4 (−1.2, 17.7) 2.8 (−5.7, 11.7) Non-HDL-C −27.2 (−34.0, −18.5) −0.8 (−8.2, 7.0) 14.5 Dysbetalipoproteinemia (Fredrickson Type III) The response to pravastatin in two double-blind crossover studies of 46 patients with genotype E2/E2 and Fredrickson Type III dysbetalipoproteinemia is shown in Table 9. Table 9: Patients with Fredrickson Type III Dysbetalipoproteinemia Median (min, max) % Change from Baseline Median (min, max) at Baseline (mg/dL) Median % Change (min, max) Pravastatin 40 mg (N=20) Study 1 Total-C 386.5 (245.0, 672.0) −32.7 (−58.5, 4.6) TG 443.0 (275.0, 1299.0) −23.7 (−68.5, 44.7) VLDL-Ca 206.5 (110.0, 379.0) −43.8 (−73.1, −14.3) LDL-Ca 117.5 (80.0, 170.0) −40.8 (−63.7, 4.6) HDL-C 30.0 (18.0, 88.0) 6.4 (−45.0, 105.6) Non-HDL-C 344.5 (215.0, 646.0) −36.7 (−66.3, 5.8) a N=14 Median (min, max) at Baseline (mg/dL) Median % Change (min, max) Pravastatin 40 mg (N=26) Study 2 Total-C 340.3 (230.1, 448.6) −31.4 (−54.5, −13.0) TG 343.2 (212.6, 845.9) −11.9 (−56.5, 44.8) VLDL-C 145.0 (71.5, 309.4) −35.7 (−74.7, 19.1) LDL-C 128.6 (63.8, 177.9) −30.3 (−52.2, 13.5) HDL-C 38.7 (27.1, 58.0) 5.0 (−17.7, 66.7) Non-HDL-C 295.8 (195.3, 421.5) −35.5 (−81.0, −13.5) 14.6 Pediatric Clinical Study A double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 214 patients (100 boys and 114 girls) with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH), aged 8 to 18 years was conducted for 2 years. The children (aged 8-13 years) were randomized to placebo (N=63) or 20 mg of pravastatin daily (N=65) and the adolescents (aged 14-18 years) were randomized to placebo (N=45) or 40 mg of pravastatin daily (N=41). Inclusion in the study required an LDL-C level >95th percentile for age and sex and one parent with either a clinical or molecular diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia. The mean baseline LDL-C value was 239 mg/dL and 237 mg/dL in the pravastatin (range: 151-405 mg/dL) and placebo (range: 154-375 mg/dL) groups, respectively. Pravastatin significantly decreased plasma levels of LDL-C, Total-C, and ApoB in both children and adolescents (see Table 10). The effect of pravastatin treatment in the 2 age groups was similar. Table 10: Lipid-Lowering Effects of Pravastatin in Pediatric Patients with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Least-Squares Mean % Change from Baseline at Month 24 (Last Observation Carried Forward: Intent-to-Treat)a Pravastatin 20 mg (Aged 8-13 years) N=65 Pravastatin 40 mg (Aged 14-18 years) N=41 Combined Pravastatin (Aged 8-18 years) N=106 Combined Placebo (Aged 8-18 years) N=108 95% CI of the Difference Between Combined Pravastatin and Placebo a The above least-squares mean values were calculated based on log-transformed lipid values. b Significant at p≤0.0001 when compared with placebo. LDL-C −26.04b −21.07b −24.07b −1.52 (−26.74, −18.86) TC −20.75b −13.08b −17.72b −0.65 (−20.40, −13.83) HDL-C 1.04 13.71 5.97 3.13 (−1.71, 7.43) TG −9.58 −0.30 −5.88 −3.27 (−13.95, 10.01) ApoB (N) −23.16b (61) −18.08b (39) −21.11b (100) −0.97 (106) (−24.29, −16.18) The mean achieved LDL-C was 186 mg/dL (range: 67-363 mg/dL) in the pravastatin group compared to 236 mg/dL (range: 105-438 mg/dL) in the placebo group. The safety and efficacy of pravastatin doses above 40 mg daily have not been studied in children. The long-term efficacy of pravastatin therapy in childhood to reduce morbidity and mortality in adulthood has not been established., 14.1 Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease In the Pravastatin Primary Prevention Study (WOS),3 the effect of PRAVACHOL on fatal and nonfatal CHD was assessed in 6595 men 45 to 64 years of age, without a previous MI, and with LDL-C levels between 156 to 254 mg/dL (4-6.7 mmol/L). In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients were treated with standard care, including dietary advice, and either PRAVACHOL 40 mg daily (N=3302) or placebo (N=3293) and followed for a median duration of 4.8 years. Median (25th, 75th percentile) percent changes from baseline after 6 months of pravastatin treatment in Total-C, LDL-C, TG, and HDL-C were −20.3 (−26.9, −11.7), −27.7 (−36.0, −16.9), −9.1 (−27.6, 12.5), and 6.7 (−2.1, 15.6), respectively. PRAVACHOL significantly reduced the rate of first coronary events (either CHD death or nonfatal MI) by 31% (248 events in the placebo group [CHD death=44, nonfatal MI=204] versus 174 events in the PRAVACHOL group [CHD death=31, nonfatal MI=143], p=0.0001 [see figure below]). The risk reduction with PRAVACHOL was similar and significant throughout the entire range of baseline LDL cholesterol levels. This reduction was also similar and significant across the age range studied with a 40% risk reduction for patients younger than 55 years and a 27% risk reduction for patients 55 years and older. The Pravastatin Primary Prevention Study included only men, and therefore it is not clear to what extent these data can be extrapolated to a similar population of female patients. PRAVACHOL also significantly decreased the risk for undergoing myocardial revascularization procedures (coronary artery bypass graft [CABG] surgery or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty [PTCA]) by 37% (80 vs 51 patients, p=0.009) and coronary angiography by 31% (128 vs 90, p=0.007). Cardiovascular deaths were decreased by 32% (73 vs 50, p=0.03) and there was no increase in death from non-cardiovascular causes. Image Pravachol Figure 1, 14.2 Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events In the LIPID4 study, the effect of PRAVACHOL, 40 mg daily, was assessed in 9014 patients (7498 men; 1516 women; 3514 elderly patients [age ≥65 years]; 782 diabetic patients) who had experienced either an MI (5754 patients) or had been hospitalized for unstable angina pectoris (3260 patients) in the preceding 3 to 36 months. Patients in this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study participated for an average of 5.6 years (median of 5.9 years) and at randomization had Total-C between 114 and 563 mg/dL (mean 219 mg/dL), LDL-C between 46 and 274 mg/dL (mean 150 mg/dL), TG between 35 and 2710 mg/dL (mean 160 mg/dL), and HDL-C between 1 and 103 mg/dL (mean 37 mg/dL). At baseline, 82% of patients were receiving aspirin and 76% were receiving antihypertensive medication. Treatment with PRAVACHOL significantly reduced the risk for total mortality by reducing coronary death (see Table 5). The risk reduction due to treatment with PRAVACHOL on CHD mortality was consistent regardless of age. PRAVACHOL significantly reduced the risk for total mortality (by reducing CHD death) and CHD events (CHD mortality or nonfatal MI) in patients who qualified with a history of either MI or hospitalization for unstable angina pectoris. Table 5: LIPID - Primary and Secondary Endpoints Number (%) of Subjects Event Pravastatin 40 mg (N=4512) Placebo (N=4502) Risk Reduction p-value Primary Endpoint CHD mortality 287 (6.4) 373 (8.3) 24% 0.0004 Secondary Endpoints Total mortality 498 (11.0) 633 (14.1) 23% <0.0001 CHD mortality or nonfatal MI 557 (12.3) 715 (15.9) 24% <0.0001 Myocardial revascularization procedures (CABG or PTCA) 584 (12.9) 706 (15.7) 20% <0.0001 Stroke All-cause 169 (3.7) 204 (4.5) 19% 0.0477 Non-hemorrhagic 154 (3.4) 196 (4.4) 23% 0.0154 Cardiovascular mortality 331 (7.3) 433 (9.6) 25% <0.0001 In the CARE5 study, the effect of PRAVACHOL, 40 mg daily, on CHD death and nonfatal MI was assessed in 4159 patients (3583 men and 576 women) who had experienced a MI in the preceding 3 to 20 months and who had normal (below the 75th percentile of the general population) plasma total cholesterol levels. Patients in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study participated for an average of 4.9 years and had a mean baseline Total-C of 209 mg/dL. LDL-C levels in this patient population ranged from 101 to 180 mg/dL (mean 139 mg/dL). At baseline, 84% of patients were receiving aspirin and 82% were taking antihypertensive medications. Median (25th, 75th percentile) percent changes from baseline after 6 months of pravastatin treatment in Total-C, LDL-C, TG, and HDL-C were −22.0 (−28.4, −14.9), −32.4 (−39.9, −23.7), −11.0 (−26.5, 8.6), and 5.1 (−2.9, 12.7), respectively. Treatment with PRAVACHOL significantly reduced the rate of first recurrent coronary events (either CHD death or nonfatal MI), the risk of undergoing revascularization procedures (PTCA, CABG), and the risk for stroke or TIA (see Table 6). Table 6: CARE - Primary and Secondary Endpoints Number (%) of Subjects Event Pravastatin 40 mg (N=2081) Placebo (N=2078) Risk Reduction p-value a The risk reduction due to treatment with PRAVACHOL was consistent in both sexes. Primary Endpoint CHD mortality or nonfatal MIa 212 (10.2) 274 (13.2) 24% 0.003 Secondary Endpoints Myocardial revascularization procedures (CABG or PTCA) 294 (14.1) 391 (18.8) 27% <0.001 Stroke or TIA 93 (4.5) 124 (6.0) 26% 0.029 In the PLAC I6 study, the effect of pravastatin therapy on coronary atherosclerosis was assessed by coronary angiography in patients with coronary disease and moderate hypercholesterolemia (baseline LDL-C range: 130-190 mg/dL). In this double-blind, multicenter, controlled clinical trial, angiograms were evaluated at baseline and at 3 years in 264 patients. Although the difference between pravastatin and placebo for the primary endpoint (per-patient change in mean coronary artery diameter) and 1 of 2 secondary endpoints (change in percent lumen diameter stenosis) did not reach statistical significance, for the secondary endpoint of change in minimum lumen diameter, statistically significant slowing of disease was seen in the pravastatin treatment group (p=0.02). In the REGRESS7 study, the effect of pravastatin on coronary atherosclerosis was assessed by coronary angiography in 885 patients with angina pectoris, angiographically documented coronary artery disease, and hypercholesterolemia (baseline total cholesterol range: 160-310 mg/dL). In this double-blind, multicenter, controlled clinical trial, angiograms were evaluated at baseline and at 2 years in 653 patients (323 treated with pravastatin). Progression of coronary atherosclerosis was significantly slowed in the pravastatin group as assessed by changes in mean segment diameter (p=0.037) and minimum obstruction diameter (p=0.001). Analysis of pooled events from PLAC I, PLAC II,8 REGRESS, and KAPS9 studies (combined N=1891) showed that treatment with pravastatin was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the composite event rate of fatal and nonfatal MI (46 events or 6.4% for placebo versus 21 events or 2.4% for pravastatin, p=0.001). The predominant effect of pravastatin was to reduce the rate of nonfatal MI., 14.3 Primary Hypercholesterolemia (Fredrickson Types IIa and IIb) PRAVACHOL is highly effective in reducing Total-C, LDL-C, and TG in patients with heterozygous familial, presumed familial combined, and non-familial (non-FH) forms of primary hypercholesterolemia, and mixed dyslipidemia. A therapeutic response is seen within 1 week, and the maximum response usually is achieved within 4 weeks. This response is maintained during extended periods of therapy. In addition, PRAVACHOL is effective in reducing the risk of acute coronary events in hypercholesterolemic patients with and without previous MI. A single daily dose is as effective as the same total daily dose given twice a day. In multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of patients with primary hypercholesterolemia, treatment with pravastatin in daily doses ranging from 10 to 40 mg consistently and significantly decreased Total-C, LDL-C, TG, and Total-C/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios (see Table 7). In a pooled analysis of 2 multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of patients with primary hypercholesterolemia, treatment with pravastatin at a daily dose of 80 mg (N=277) significantly decreased Total-C, LDL-C, and TG. The 25th and 75th percentile changes from baseline in LDL-C for pravastatin 80 mg were −43% and −30%. The efficacy results of the individual studies were consistent with the pooled data (see Table 7). Treatment with PRAVACHOL modestly decreased VLDL-C and PRAVACHOL across all doses produced variable increases in HDL-C (see Table 7). Table 7: Primary Hypercholesterolemia Studies: Dose Response of PRAVACHOL Once Daily Administration a A multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. b Pooled analysis of 2 multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. Dose Total-C LDL-C HDL-C TG Mean Percent Changes From Baseline After 8 Weeksa Placebo (N=36) −3% −4% +1% −4% 10 mg (N=18) −16% −22% +7% −15% 20 mg (N=19) −24% −32% +2% −11% 40 mg (N=18) −25% −34% +12% −24% Mean Percent Changes From Baseline After 6 Weeksb Placebo (N=162) 0% −1% −1% +1% 80 mg (N=277) −27% −37% +3% −19% In another clinical trial, patients treated with pravastatin in combination with cholestyramine (70% of patients were taking cholestyramine 20 or 24 g per day) had reductions equal to or greater than 50% in LDL-C. Furthermore, pravastatin attenuated cholestyramine-induced increases in TG levels (which are themselves of uncertain clinical significance)., 14.4 Hypertriglyceridemia (Fredrickson Type IV) The response to pravastatin in patients with Type IV hyperlipidemia (baseline TG >200 mg/dL and LDL-C <160 mg/dL) was evaluated in a subset of 429 patients from the CARE study. For pravastatin-treated subjects, the median (min, max) baseline TG level was 246.0 (200.5, 349.5) mg/dL (see Table 8). Table 8: Patients with Fredrickson Type IV Hyperlipidemia Median (25th, 75th percentile) % Change from Baseline Pravastatin 40 mg (N=429) Placebo (N=430) TG −21.1 (−34.8, 1.3) −6.3 (−23.1, 18.3) Total-C −22.1 (−27.1, −14.8) 0.2 (−6.9, 6.8) LDL-C −31.7 (−39.6, −21.5) 0.7 (−9.0, 10.0) HDL-C 7.4 (−1.2, 17.7) 2.8 (−5.7, 11.7) Non-HDL-C −27.2 (−34.0, −18.5) −0.8 (−8.2, 7.0), 14.5 Dysbetalipoproteinemia (Fredrickson Type III) The response to pravastatin in two double-blind crossover studies of 46 patients with genotype E2/E2 and Fredrickson Type III dysbetalipoproteinemia is shown in Table 9. Table 9: Patients with Fredrickson Type III Dysbetalipoproteinemia Median (min, max) % Change from Baseline Median (min, max) at Baseline (mg/dL) Median % Change (min, max) Pravastatin 40 mg (N=20) Study 1 Total-C 386.5 (245.0, 672.0) −32.7 (−58.5, 4.6) TG 443.0 (275.0, 1299.0) −23.7 (−68.5, 44.7) VLDL-Ca 206.5 (110.0, 379.0) −43.8 (−73.1, −14.3) LDL-Ca 117.5 (80.0, 170.0) −40.8 (−63.7, 4.6) HDL-C 30.0 (18.0, 88.0) 6.4 (−45.0, 105.6) Non-HDL-C 344.5 (215.0, 646.0) −36.7 (−66.3, 5.8) a N=14 Median (min, max) at Baseline (mg/dL) Median % Change (min, max) Pravastatin 40 mg (N=26) Study 2 Total-C 340.3 (230.1, 448.6) −31.4 (−54.5, −13.0) TG 343.2 (212.6, 845.9) −11.9 (−56.5, 44.8) VLDL-C 145.0 (71.5, 309.4) −35.7 (−74.7, 19.1) LDL-C 128.6 (63.8, 177.9) −30.3 (−52.2, 13.5) HDL-C 38.7 (27.1, 58.0) 5.0 (−17.7, 66.7) Non-HDL-C 295.8 (195.3, 421.5) −35.5 (−81.0, −13.5), and 14.6 Pediatric Clinical Study A double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 214 patients (100 boys and 114 girls) with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH), aged 8 to 18 years was conducted for 2 years. The children (aged 8-13 years) were randomized to placebo (N=63) or 20 mg of pravastatin daily (N=65) and the adolescents (aged 14-18 years) were randomized to placebo (N=45) or 40 mg of pravastatin daily (N=41). Inclusion in the study required an LDL-C level >95th percentile for age and sex and one parent with either a clinical or molecular diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia. The mean baseline LDL-C value was 239 mg/dL and 237 mg/dL in the pravastatin (range: 151-405 mg/dL) and placebo (range: 154-375 mg/dL) groups, respectively. Pravastatin significantly decreased plasma levels of LDL-C, Total-C, and ApoB in both children and adolescents (see Table 10). The effect of pravastatin treatment in the 2 age groups was similar. Table 10: Lipid-Lowering Effects of Pravastatin in Pediatric Patients with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Least-Squares Mean % Change from Baseline at Month 24 (Last Observation Carried Forward: Intent-to-Treat)a Pravastatin 20 mg (Aged 8-13 years) N=65 Pravastatin 40 mg (Aged 14-18 years) N=41 Combined Pravastatin (Aged 8-18 years) N=106 Combined Placebo (Aged 8-18 years) N=108 95% CI of the Difference Between Combined Pravastatin and Placebo a The above least-squares mean values were calculated based on log-transformed lipid values. b Significant at p≤0.0001 when compared with placebo. LDL-C −26.04b −21.07b −24.07b −1.52 (−26.74, −18.86) TC −20.75b −13.08b −17.72b −0.65 (−20.40, −13.83) HDL-C 1.04 13.71 5.97 3.13 (−1.71, 7.43) TG −9.58 −0.30 −5.88 −3.27 (−13.95, 10.01) ApoB (N) −23.16b (61) −18.08b (39) −21.11b (100) −0.97 (106) (−24.29, −16.18) The mean achieved LDL-C was 186 mg/dL (range: 67-363 mg/dL) in the pravastatin group compared to 236 mg/dL (range: 105-438 mg/dL) in the placebo group. The safety and efficacy of pravastatin doses above 40 mg daily have not been studied in children. The long-term efficacy of pravastatin therapy in childhood to reduce morbidity and mortality in adulthood has not been established.

Warnings And Cautions

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS •Skeletal muscle effects (e.g., myopathy and rhabdomyolysis): predisposing factors include advanced age (≥65), uncontrolled hypothyroidism, and renal impairment. Patients should be advised to promptly report to their physician any unexplained and/or persistent muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness. Pravastatin therapy should be discontinued if myopathy is diagnosed or suspected. (5.1, 8.5) •Liver enzyme abnormalities: persistent elevations in hepatic transaminases can occur. Check liver enzyme tests before initiating therapy and as clinically indicated thereafter. (5.2) 5.1 Skeletal Muscle Rare cases of rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure secondary to myoglobinuria have been reported with pravastatin and other drugs in this class. A history of renal impairment may be a risk factor for the development of rhabdomyolysis. Such patients merit closer monitoring for skeletal muscle effects. Uncomplicated myalgia has also been reported in pravastatin-treated patients [see Adverse Reactions (6) ]. Myopathy, defined as muscle aching or muscle weakness in conjunction with increases in creatine phosphokinase (CPK) values to greater than 10 times the ULN, was rare (<0.1%) in pravastatin clinical trials. Myopathy should be considered in any patient with diffuse myalgias, muscle tenderness or weakness, and/or marked elevation of CPK. Predisposing factors include advanced age (≥65), uncontrolled hypothyroidism, and renal impairment. There have been rare reports of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM), an autoimmune myopathy, associated with statin use. IMNM is characterized by: proximal muscle weakness and elevated serum CPK, which persist despite discontinuation of statin treatment; muscle biopsy showing necrotizing myopathy without significant inflammation and improvement with immunosuppressive agents. All patients should be advised to promptly report to their physician unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, particularly if accompanied by malaise or fever or if muscle signs and symptoms persist after discontinuing PRAVACHOL. Pravastatin therapy should be discontinued if markedly elevated CPK levels occur or myopathy is diagnosed or suspected. Pravastatin therapy should also be temporarily withheld in any patient experiencing an acute or serious condition predisposing to the development of renal failure secondary to rhabdomyolysis, e.g., sepsis; hypotension; major surgery; trauma; severe metabolic, endocrine, or electrolyte disorders; or uncontrolled epilepsy. The risk of myopathy during treatment with statins is increased with concurrent therapy with either erythromycin, cyclosporine, niacin, or fibrates. However, neither myopathy nor significant increases in CPK levels have been observed in 3 reports involving a total of 100 post-transplant patients (24 renal and 76 cardiac) treated for up to 2 years concurrently with pravastatin 10 to 40 mg and cyclosporine. Some of these patients also received other concomitant immunosuppressive therapies. Further, in clinical trials involving small numbers of patients who were treated concurrently with pravastatin and niacin, there were no reports of myopathy. Also, myopathy was not reported in a trial of combination pravastatin (40 mg/day) and gemfibrozil (1200 mg/day), although 4 of 75 patients on the combination showed marked CPK elevations versus 1 of 73 patients receiving placebo. There was a trend toward more frequent CPK elevations and patient withdrawals due to musculoskeletal symptoms in the group receiving combined treatment as compared with the groups receiving placebo, gemfibrozil, or pravastatin monotherapy. The use of fibrates alone may occasionally be associated with myopathy. The benefit of further alterations in lipid levels by the combined use of PRAVACHOL with fibrates should be carefully weighed against the potential risks of this combination. Cases of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis, have been reported with pravastatin coadministered with colchicine, and caution should be exercised when prescribing pravastatin with colchicine [see Drug Interactions (7.3) ]. 5.2 Liver Statins, like some other lipid-lowering therapies, have been associated with biochemical abnormalities of liver function. In 3 long-term (4.8-5.9 years), placebo-controlled clinical trials (WOS, LIPID, CARE), 19,592 subjects (19,768 randomized) were exposed to pravastatin or placebo [see Clinical Studies (14) ]. In an analysis of serum transaminase values (ALT, AST), incidences of marked abnormalities were compared between the pravastatin and placebo treatment groups; a marked abnormality was defined as a post-treatment test value greater than 3 times the ULN for subjects with pretreatment values less than or equal to the ULN, or 4 times the pretreatment value for subjects with pretreatment values greater than the ULN but less than 1.5 times the ULN. Marked abnormalities of ALT or AST occurred with similar low frequency (≤1.2%) in both treatment groups. Overall, clinical trial experience showed that liver function test abnormalities observed during pravastatin therapy were usually asymptomatic, not associated with cholestasis, and did not appear to be related to treatment duration. In a 320-patient placebo-controlled clinical trial, subjects with chronic (>6 months) stable liver disease, due primarily to hepatitis C or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, were treated with 80 mg pravastatin or placebo for up to 9 months. The primary safety endpoint was the proportion of subjects with at least one ALT ≥2 times the ULN for those with normal ALT (≤ ULN) at baseline or a doubling of the baseline ALT for those with elevated ALT (> ULN) at baseline. By Week 36, 12 out of 160 (7.5%) subjects treated with pravastatin met the prespecified safety ALT endpoint compared to 20 out of 160 (12.5%) subjects receiving placebo. Conclusions regarding liver safety are limited since the study was not large enough to establish similarity between groups (with 95% confidence) in the rates of ALT elevation. It is recommended that liver function tests be performed prior to the initiation of therapy and when clinically indicated. Active liver disease or unexplained persistent transaminase elevations are contraindications to the use of pravastatin [see Contraindications (4.2) ]. Caution should be exercised when pravastatin is administered to patients who have a recent (<6 months) history of liver disease, have signs that may suggest liver disease (e.g., unexplained aminotransferase elevations, jaundice), or are heavy users of alcohol. There have been rare postmarketing reports of fatal and non-fatal hepatic failure in patients taking statins, including pravastatin. If serious liver injury with clinical symptoms and/or hyperbilirubinemia or jaundice occurs during treatment with PRAVACHOL, promptly interrupt therapy. If an alternate etiology is not found do not restart PRAVACHOL. 5.3 Endocrine Function Statins interfere with cholesterol synthesis and lower circulating cholesterol levels and, as such, might theoretically blunt adrenal or gonadal steroid hormone production. Results of clinical trials with pravastatin in males and post-menopausal females were inconsistent with regard to possible effects of the drug on basal steroid hormone levels. In a study of 21 males, the mean testosterone response to human chorionic gonadotropin was significantly reduced (p<0.004) after 16 weeks of treatment with 40 mg of pravastatin. However, the percentage of patients showing a ≥50% rise in plasma testosterone after human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation did not change significantly after therapy in these patients. The effects of statins on spermatogenesis and fertility have not been studied in adequate numbers of patients. The effects, if any, of pravastatin on the pituitary-gonadal axis in pre-menopausal females are unknown. Patients treated with pravastatin who display clinical evidence of endocrine dysfunction should be evaluated appropriately. Caution should also be exercised if a statin or other agent used to lower cholesterol levels is administered to patients also receiving other drugs (e.g., ketoconazole, spironolactone, cimetidine) that may diminish the levels or activity of steroid hormones. In a placebo-controlled study of 214 pediatric patients with HeFH, of which 106 were treated with pravastatin (20 mg in the children aged 8-13 years and 40 mg in the adolescents aged 14-18 years) for 2 years, there were no detectable differences seen in any of the endocrine parameters (ACTH, cortisol, DHEAS, FSH, LH, TSH, estradiol [girls] or testosterone [boys]) relative to placebo. There were no detectable differences seen in height and weight changes, testicular volume changes, or Tanner score relative to placebo., 5.1 Skeletal Muscle Rare cases of rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure secondary to myoglobinuria have been reported with pravastatin and other drugs in this class. A history of renal impairment may be a risk factor for the development of rhabdomyolysis. Such patients merit closer monitoring for skeletal muscle effects. Uncomplicated myalgia has also been reported in pravastatin-treated patients [see Adverse Reactions (6) ]. Myopathy, defined as muscle aching or muscle weakness in conjunction with increases in creatine phosphokinase (CPK) values to greater than 10 times the ULN, was rare (<0.1%) in pravastatin clinical trials. Myopathy should be considered in any patient with diffuse myalgias, muscle tenderness or weakness, and/or marked elevation of CPK. Predisposing factors include advanced age (≥65), uncontrolled hypothyroidism, and renal impairment. There have been rare reports of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM), an autoimmune myopathy, associated with statin use. IMNM is characterized by: proximal muscle weakness and elevated serum CPK, which persist despite discontinuation of statin treatment; muscle biopsy showing necrotizing myopathy without significant inflammation and improvement with immunosuppressive agents. All patients should be advised to promptly report to their physician unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, particularly if accompanied by malaise or fever or if muscle signs and symptoms persist after discontinuing PRAVACHOL. Pravastatin therapy should be discontinued if markedly elevated CPK levels occur or myopathy is diagnosed or suspected. Pravastatin therapy should also be temporarily withheld in any patient experiencing an acute or serious condition predisposing to the development of renal failure secondary to rhabdomyolysis, e.g., sepsis; hypotension; major surgery; trauma; severe metabolic, endocrine, or electrolyte disorders; or uncontrolled epilepsy. The risk of myopathy during treatment with statins is increased with concurrent therapy with either erythromycin, cyclosporine, niacin, or fibrates. However, neither myopathy nor significant increases in CPK levels have been observed in 3 reports involving a total of 100 post-transplant patients (24 renal and 76 cardiac) treated for up to 2 years concurrently with pravastatin 10 to 40 mg and cyclosporine. Some of these patients also received other concomitant immunosuppressive therapies. Further, in clinical trials involving small numbers of patients who were treated concurrently with pravastatin and niacin, there were no reports of myopathy. Also, myopathy was not reported in a trial of combination pravastatin (40 mg/day) and gemfibrozil (1200 mg/day), although 4 of 75 patients on the combination showed marked CPK elevations versus 1 of 73 patients receiving placebo. There was a trend toward more frequent CPK elevations and patient withdrawals due to musculoskeletal symptoms in the group receiving combined treatment as compared with the groups receiving placebo, gemfibrozil, or pravastatin monotherapy. The use of fibrates alone may occasionally be associated with myopathy. The benefit of further alterations in lipid levels by the combined use of PRAVACHOL with fibrates should be carefully weighed against the potential risks of this combination. Cases of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis, have been reported with pravastatin coadministered with colchicine, and caution should be exercised when prescribing pravastatin with colchicine [see Drug Interactions (7.3) ]., 5.2 Liver Statins, like some other lipid-lowering therapies, have been associated with biochemical abnormalities of liver function. In 3 long-term (4.8-5.9 years), placebo-controlled clinical trials (WOS, LIPID, CARE), 19,592 subjects (19,768 randomized) were exposed to pravastatin or placebo [see Clinical Studies (14) ]. In an analysis of serum transaminase values (ALT, AST), incidences of marked abnormalities were compared between the pravastatin and placebo treatment groups; a marked abnormality was defined as a post-treatment test value greater than 3 times the ULN for subjects with pretreatment values less than or equal to the ULN, or 4 times the pretreatment value for subjects with pretreatment values greater than the ULN but less than 1.5 times the ULN. Marked abnormalities of ALT or AST occurred with similar low frequency (≤1.2%) in both treatment groups. Overall, clinical trial experience showed that liver function test abnormalities observed during pravastatin therapy were usually asymptomatic, not associated with cholestasis, and did not appear to be related to treatment duration. In a 320-patient placebo-controlled clinical trial, subjects with chronic (>6 months) stable liver disease, due primarily to hepatitis C or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, were treated with 80 mg pravastatin or placebo for up to 9 months. The primary safety endpoint was the proportion of subjects with at least one ALT ≥2 times the ULN for those with normal ALT (≤ ULN) at baseline or a doubling of the baseline ALT for those with elevated ALT (> ULN) at baseline. By Week 36, 12 out of 160 (7.5%) subjects treated with pravastatin met the prespecified safety ALT endpoint compared to 20 out of 160 (12.5%) subjects receiving placebo. Conclusions regarding liver safety are limited since the study was not large enough to establish similarity between groups (with 95% confidence) in the rates of ALT elevation. It is recommended that liver function tests be performed prior to the initiation of therapy and when clinically indicated. Active liver disease or unexplained persistent transaminase elevations are contraindications to the use of pravastatin [see Contraindications (4.2) ]. Caution should be exercised when pravastatin is administered to patients who have a recent (<6 months) history of liver disease, have signs that may suggest liver disease (e.g., unexplained aminotransferase elevations, jaundice), or are heavy users of alcohol. There have been rare postmarketing reports of fatal and non-fatal hepatic failure in patients taking statins, including pravastatin. If serious liver injury with clinical symptoms and/or hyperbilirubinemia or jaundice occurs during treatment with PRAVACHOL, promptly interrupt therapy. If an alternate etiology is not found do not restart PRAVACHOL., and 5.3 Endocrine Function Statins interfere with cholesterol synthesis and lower circulating cholesterol levels and, as such, might theoretically blunt adrenal or gonadal steroid hormone production. Results of clinical trials with pravastatin in males and post-menopausal females were inconsistent with regard to possible effects of the drug on basal steroid hormone levels. In a study of 21 males, the mean testosterone response to human chorionic gonadotropin was significantly reduced (p<0.004) after 16 weeks of treatment with 40 mg of pravastatin. However, the percentage of patients showing a ≥50% rise in plasma testosterone after human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation did not change significantly after therapy in these patients. The effects of statins on spermatogenesis and fertility have not been studied in adequate numbers of patients. The effects, if any, of pravastatin on the pituitary-gonadal axis in pre-menopausal females are unknown. Patients treated with pravastatin who display clinical evidence of endocrine dysfunction should be evaluated appropriately. Caution should also be exercised if a statin or other agent used to lower cholesterol levels is administered to patients also receiving other drugs (e.g., ketoconazole, spironolactone, cimetidine) that may diminish the levels or activity of steroid hormones. In a placebo-controlled study of 214 pediatric patients with HeFH, of which 106 were treated with pravastatin (20 mg in the children aged 8-13 years and 40 mg in the adolescents aged 14-18 years) for 2 years, there were no detectable differences seen in any of the endocrine parameters (ACTH, cortisol, DHEAS, FSH, LH, TSH, estradiol [girls] or testosterone [boys]) relative to placebo. There were no detectable differences seen in height and weight changes, testicular volume changes, or Tanner score relative to placebo.

Overdosage

10 OVERDOSAGE To date, there has been limited experience with overdosage of pravastatin. If an overdose occurs, it should be treated symptomatically with laboratory monitoring and supportive measures should be instituted as required.

Adverse Reactions

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS Pravastatin is generally well tolerated; adverse reactions have usually been mild and transient. In 4-month-long placebo-controlled trials, 1.7% of pravastatin-treated patients and 1.2% of placebo-treated patients were discontinued from treatment because of adverse experiences attributed to study drug therapy; this difference was not statistically significant. In short-term clinical trials, the most commonly reported adverse reactions (≥2% and > placebo) regardless of causality were: musculoskeletal pain, nausea/vomiting, upper respiratory infection, diarrhea, and headache. (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Bristol-Myers Squibb at 1-800-721-5072 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Adverse Clinical Events Short-Term Controlled Trials In the PRAVACHOL placebo-controlled clinical trials database of 1313 patients (age range 20-76 years, 32.4% women, 93.5% Caucasians, 5% Blacks, 0.9% Hispanics, 0.4% Asians, 0.2% Others) with a median treatment duration of 14 weeks, 3.3% of patients on PRAVACHOL and 1.2% patients on placebo discontinued due to adverse events regardless of causality. The most common adverse reactions that led to treatment discontinuation and occurred at an incidence greater than placebo were: liver function test increased, nausea, anxiety/depression, and dizziness. All adverse clinical events (regardless of causality) reported in ≥2% of pravastatin-treated patients in placebo-controlled trials of up to 8 months duration are identified in Table 1: Table 1: Adverse Events in ≥2% of Patients Treated with Pravastatin 5 to 40 mg and at an Incidence Greater Than Placebo in Short-Term Placebo-Controlled Trials (% of patients) Body System/Event 5 mg N=100 10 mg N=153 20 mg N=478 40 mg N=171 Any Dose N=902 Placebo N=411 Cardiovascular Angina Pectoris 5.0 4.6 4.8 3.5 4.5 3.4 Dermatologic Rash 3.0 2.6 6.7 1.2 4.5 1.4 Gastrointestinal Nausea/Vomiting Diarrhea Flatulence Dyspepsia/Heartburn Abdominal Distension 4.0 8.0 2.0 0.0 2.0 5.9 8.5 3.3 3.3 3.3 10.5 6.5 4.6 3.6 2.1 2.3 4.7 0.0 0.6 0.6 7.4 6.7 3.2 2.5 2.0 7.1 5.6 4.4 2.7 2.4 General Fatigue Chest Pain Influenza 4.0 4.0 4.0 1.3 1.3 2.6 5.2 3.3 1.9 0.0 1.2 0.6 3.4 2.7 2.0 3.9 1.9 0.7 Musculoskeletal Musculoskeletal Pain Myalgia 13.0 1.0 3.9 2.6 13.2 2.9 5.3 1.2 10.1 2.3 10.2 1.2 Nervous System Headache Dizziness 5.0 4.0 6.5 1.3 7.5 5.2 3.5 0.6 6.3 3.5 4.6 3.4 Respiratory Pharyngitis Upper Respiratory Infection Rhinitis Cough 2.0 6.0 7.0 4.0 4.6 9.8 5.2 1.3 1.5 5.2 3.8 3.1 1.2 4.1 1.2 1.2 2.0 5.9 3.9 2.5 2.7 5.8 4.9 1.7 Investigation ALT Increased g-GT Increased CPK Increased 2.0 3.0 5.0 2.0 2.6 1.3 4.0 2.1 5.2 1.2 0.6 2.9 2.9 2.0 4.1 1.2 1.2 3.6 The safety and tolerability of PRAVACHOL at a dose of 80 mg in 2 controlled trials with a mean exposure of 8.6 months was similar to that of PRAVACHOL at lower doses except that 4 out of 464 patients taking 80 mg of pravastatin had a single elevation of CK >10 times ULN compared to 0 out of 115 patients taking 40 mg of pravastatin. Long-Term Controlled Morbidity and Mortality Trials In the PRAVACHOL placebo-controlled clinical trials database of 21,483 patients (age range 24-75 years, 10.3% women, 52.3% Caucasians, 0.8% Blacks, 0.5% Hispanics, 0.1% Asians, 0.1% Others, 46.1% Not Recorded) with a median treatment duration of 261 weeks, 8.1% of patients on PRAVACHOL and 9.3% patients on placebo discontinued due to adverse events regardless of causality. Adverse event data were pooled from 7 double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study [WOS]; Cholesterol and Recurrent Events study [CARE]; Long-term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischemic Disease study [LIPID]; Pravastatin Limitation of Atherosclerosis in the Coronary Arteries study [PLAC I]; Pravastatin, Lipids and Atherosclerosis in the Carotids study [PLAC II]; Regression Growth Evaluation Statin Study [REGRESS]; and Kuopio Atherosclerosis Prevention Study [KAPS]) involving a total of 10,764 patients treated with pravastatin 40 mg and 10,719 patients treated with placebo. The safety and tolerability profile in the pravastatin group was comparable to that of the placebo group. Patients were exposed to pravastatin for a mean of 4.0 to 5.1 years in WOS, CARE, and LIPID and 1.9 to 2.9 years in PLAC I, PLAC II, KAPS, and REGRESS. In these long-term trials, the most common reasons for discontinuation were mild, non-specific gastrointestinal complaints. Collectively, these 7 trials represent 47,613 patient-years of exposure to pravastatin. All clinical adverse events (regardless of causality) occurring in ≥2% of patients treated with pravastatin in these studies are identified in Table 2. Table 2: Adverse Events in ≥2% of Patients Treated with Pravastatin 40 mg and at an Incidence Greater Than Placebo in Long-Term Placebo-Controlled Trials Body System/Event Pravastatin (N=10,764) % of patients Placebo (N=10,719) % of patients Dermatologic Rash (including dermatitis) 7.2 7.1 General Edema Fatigue Chest Pain Fever Weight Gain Weight Loss 3.0 8.4 10.0 2.1 3.8 3.3 2.7 7.8 9.8 1.9 3.3 2.8 Musculoskeletal Musculoskeletal Pain Muscle Cramp Musculoskeletal Traumatism 24.9 5.1 10.2 24.4 4.6 9.6 Nervous System Dizziness Sleep Disturbance Anxiety/Nervousness Paresthesia 7.3 3.0 4.8 3.2 6.6 2.4 4.7 3.0 Renal/Genitourinary Urinary Tract Infection 2.7 2.6 Respiratory Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Cough Influenza Pulmonary Infection Sinus Abnormality Tracheobronchitis 21.2 8.2 9.2 3.8 7.0 3.4 20.2 7.4 9.0 3.5 6.7 3.1 Special Senses Vision Disturbance (includes blurred vision, diplopia) 3.4 3.3 Infections Viral Infection 3.2 2.9 In addition to the events listed above in the long-term trials table, events of probable, possible, or uncertain relationship to study drug that occurred in <2.0% of pravastatin-treated patients in the long-term trials included the following: Dermatologic: scalp hair abnormality (including alopecia), urticaria. Endocrine/Metabolic: sexual dysfunction, libido change. General: flushing. Immunologic: allergy, edema head/neck. Musculoskeletal: muscle weakness. Nervous System: vertigo, insomnia, memory impairment, neuropathy (including peripheral neuropathy). Special Senses: taste disturbance. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience In addition to the events reported above, as with other drugs in this class, the following events have been reported during postmarketing experience with PRAVACHOL, regardless of causality assessment: Musculoskeletal: myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, tendon disorder, polymyositis. There have been rare reports of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy associated with statin use [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. Nervous System: dysfunction of certain cranial nerves (including alteration of taste, impairment of extraocular movement, facial paresis), peripheral nerve palsy. There have been rare postmarketing reports of cognitive impairment (e.g., memory loss, forgetfulness, amnesia, memory impairment, confusion) associated with statin use. These cognitive issues have been reported for all statins. The reports are generally nonserious, and reversible upon statin discontinuation, with variable times to symptom onset (1 day to years) and symptom resolution (median of 3 weeks). Hypersensitivity: anaphylaxis, angioedema, lupus erythematosus-like syndrome, polymyalgia rheumatica, dermatomyositis, vasculitis, purpura, hemolytic anemia, positive ANA, ESR increase, arthritis, arthralgia, asthenia, photosensitivity, chills, malaise, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme (including Stevens-Johnson syndrome). Gastrointestinal: abdominal pain, constipation, pancreatitis, hepatitis (including chronic active hepatitis), cholestatic jaundice, fatty change in liver, cirrhosis, fulminant hepatic necrosis, hepatoma, fatal and non-fatal hepatic failure. Dermatologic: a variety of skin changes (e.g., nodules, discoloration, dryness of mucous membranes, changes to hair/nails). Renal: urinary abnormality (including dysuria, frequency, nocturia). Respiratory: dyspnea, interstitial lung disease. Psychiatric: nightmare. Reproductive: gynecomastia. Laboratory Abnormalities: liver function test abnormalities, thyroid function abnormalities. 6.3 Laboratory Test Abnormalities Increases in ALT, AST values and CPK have been observed [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2) ]. Transient, asymptomatic eosinophilia has been reported. Eosinophil counts usually returned to normal despite continued therapy. Anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia have been reported with statins. 6.4 Pediatric Patients In a 2-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving 100 boys and 114 girls with HeFH (n=214; age range 8-18.5 years, 53% female, 95% Caucasians, <1% Blacks, 3% Asians, 1% Other), the safety and tolerability profile of pravastatin was generally similar to that of placebo. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.3) , Use in Specific Populations (8.4) , and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) .], 6.1 Adverse Clinical Events Short-Term Controlled Trials In the PRAVACHOL placebo-controlled clinical trials database of 1313 patients (age range 20-76 years, 32.4% women, 93.5% Caucasians, 5% Blacks, 0.9% Hispanics, 0.4% Asians, 0.2% Others) with a median treatment duration of 14 weeks, 3.3% of patients on PRAVACHOL and 1.2% patients on placebo discontinued due to adverse events regardless of causality. The most common adverse reactions that led to treatment discontinuation and occurred at an incidence greater than placebo were: liver function test increased, nausea, anxiety/depression, and dizziness. All adverse clinical events (regardless of causality) reported in ≥2% of pravastatin-treated patients in placebo-controlled trials of up to 8 months duration are identified in Table 1: Table 1: Adverse Events in ≥2% of Patients Treated with Pravastatin 5 to 40 mg and at an Incidence Greater Than Placebo in Short-Term Placebo-Controlled Trials (% of patients) Body System/Event 5 mg N=100 10 mg N=153 20 mg N=478 40 mg N=171 Any Dose N=902 Placebo N=411 Cardiovascular Angina Pectoris 5.0 4.6 4.8 3.5 4.5 3.4 Dermatologic Rash 3.0 2.6 6.7 1.2 4.5 1.4 Gastrointestinal Nausea/Vomiting Diarrhea Flatulence Dyspepsia/Heartburn Abdominal Distension 4.0 8.0 2.0 0.0 2.0 5.9 8.5 3.3 3.3 3.3 10.5 6.5 4.6 3.6 2.1 2.3 4.7 0.0 0.6 0.6 7.4 6.7 3.2 2.5 2.0 7.1 5.6 4.4 2.7 2.4 General Fatigue Chest Pain Influenza 4.0 4.0 4.0 1.3 1.3 2.6 5.2 3.3 1.9 0.0 1.2 0.6 3.4 2.7 2.0 3.9 1.9 0.7 Musculoskeletal Musculoskeletal Pain Myalgia 13.0 1.0 3.9 2.6 13.2 2.9 5.3 1.2 10.1 2.3 10.2 1.2 Nervous System Headache Dizziness 5.0 4.0 6.5 1.3 7.5 5.2 3.5 0.6 6.3 3.5 4.6 3.4 Respiratory Pharyngitis Upper Respiratory Infection Rhinitis Cough 2.0 6.0 7.0 4.0 4.6 9.8 5.2 1.3 1.5 5.2 3.8 3.1 1.2 4.1 1.2 1.2 2.0 5.9 3.9 2.5 2.7 5.8 4.9 1.7 Investigation ALT Increased g-GT Increased CPK Increased 2.0 3.0 5.0 2.0 2.6 1.3 4.0 2.1 5.2 1.2 0.6 2.9 2.9 2.0 4.1 1.2 1.2 3.6 The safety and tolerability of PRAVACHOL at a dose of 80 mg in 2 controlled trials with a mean exposure of 8.6 months was similar to that of PRAVACHOL at lower doses except that 4 out of 464 patients taking 80 mg of pravastatin had a single elevation of CK >10 times ULN compared to 0 out of 115 patients taking 40 mg of pravastatin. Long-Term Controlled Morbidity and Mortality Trials In the PRAVACHOL placebo-controlled clinical trials database of 21,483 patients (age range 24-75 years, 10.3% women, 52.3% Caucasians, 0.8% Blacks, 0.5% Hispanics, 0.1% Asians, 0.1% Others, 46.1% Not Recorded) with a median treatment duration of 261 weeks, 8.1% of patients on PRAVACHOL and 9.3% patients on placebo discontinued due to adverse events regardless of causality. Adverse event data were pooled from 7 double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study [WOS]; Cholesterol and Recurrent Events study [CARE]; Long-term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischemic Disease study [LIPID]; Pravastatin Limitation of Atherosclerosis in the Coronary Arteries study [PLAC I]; Pravastatin, Lipids and Atherosclerosis in the Carotids study [PLAC II]; Regression Growth Evaluation Statin Study [REGRESS]; and Kuopio Atherosclerosis Prevention Study [KAPS]) involving a total of 10,764 patients treated with pravastatin 40 mg and 10,719 patients treated with placebo. The safety and tolerability profile in the pravastatin group was comparable to that of the placebo group. Patients were exposed to pravastatin for a mean of 4.0 to 5.1 years in WOS, CARE, and LIPID and 1.9 to 2.9 years in PLAC I, PLAC II, KAPS, and REGRESS. In these long-term trials, the most common reasons for discontinuation were mild, non-specific gastrointestinal complaints. Collectively, these 7 trials represent 47,613 patient-years of exposure to pravastatin. All clinical adverse events (regardless of causality) occurring in ≥2% of patients treated with pravastatin in these studies are identified in Table 2. Table 2: Adverse Events in ≥2% of Patients Treated with Pravastatin 40 mg and at an Incidence Greater Than Placebo in Long-Term Placebo-Controlled Trials Body System/Event Pravastatin (N=10,764) % of patients Placebo (N=10,719) % of patients Dermatologic Rash (including dermatitis) 7.2 7.1 General Edema Fatigue Chest Pain Fever Weight Gain Weight Loss 3.0 8.4 10.0 2.1 3.8 3.3 2.7 7.8 9.8 1.9 3.3 2.8 Musculoskeletal Musculoskeletal Pain Muscle Cramp Musculoskeletal Traumatism 24.9 5.1 10.2 24.4 4.6 9.6 Nervous System Dizziness Sleep Disturbance Anxiety/Nervousness Paresthesia 7.3 3.0 4.8 3.2 6.6 2.4 4.7 3.0 Renal/Genitourinary Urinary Tract Infection 2.7 2.6 Respiratory Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Cough Influenza Pulmonary Infection Sinus Abnormality Tracheobronchitis 21.2 8.2 9.2 3.8 7.0 3.4 20.2 7.4 9.0 3.5 6.7 3.1 Special Senses Vision Disturbance (includes blurred vision, diplopia) 3.4 3.3 Infections Viral Infection 3.2 2.9 In addition to the events listed above in the long-term trials table, events of probable, possible, or uncertain relationship to study drug that occurred in <2.0% of pravastatin-treated patients in the long-term trials included the following: Dermatologic: scalp hair abnormality (including alopecia), urticaria. Endocrine/Metabolic: sexual dysfunction, libido change. General: flushing. Immunologic: allergy, edema head/neck. Musculoskeletal: muscle weakness. Nervous System: vertigo, insomnia, memory impairment, neuropathy (including peripheral neuropathy). Special Senses: taste disturbance., Short-Term Controlled Trials In the PRAVACHOL placebo-controlled clinical trials database of 1313 patients (age range 20-76 years, 32.4% women, 93.5% Caucasians, 5% Blacks, 0.9% Hispanics, 0.4% Asians, 0.2% Others) with a median treatment duration of 14 weeks, 3.3% of patients on PRAVACHOL and 1.2% patients on placebo discontinued due to adverse events regardless of causality. The most common adverse reactions that led to treatment discontinuation and occurred at an incidence greater than placebo were: liver function test increased, nausea, anxiety/depression, and dizziness. All adverse clinical events (regardless of causality) reported in ≥2% of pravastatin-treated patients in placebo-controlled trials of up to 8 months duration are identified in Table 1: Table 1: Adverse Events in ≥2% of Patients Treated with Pravastatin 5 to 40 mg and at an Incidence Greater Than Placebo in Short-Term Placebo-Controlled Trials (% of patients) Body System/Event 5 mg N=100 10 mg N=153 20 mg N=478 40 mg N=171 Any Dose N=902 Placebo N=411 Cardiovascular Angina Pectoris 5.0 4.6 4.8 3.5 4.5 3.4 Dermatologic Rash 3.0 2.6 6.7 1.2 4.5 1.4 Gastrointestinal Nausea/Vomiting Diarrhea Flatulence Dyspepsia/Heartburn Abdominal Distension 4.0 8.0 2.0 0.0 2.0 5.9 8.5 3.3 3.3 3.3 10.5 6.5 4.6 3.6 2.1 2.3 4.7 0.0 0.6 0.6 7.4 6.7 3.2 2.5 2.0 7.1 5.6 4.4 2.7 2.4 General Fatigue Chest Pain Influenza 4.0 4.0 4.0 1.3 1.3 2.6 5.2 3.3 1.9 0.0 1.2 0.6 3.4 2.7 2.0 3.9 1.9 0.7 Musculoskeletal Musculoskeletal Pain Myalgia 13.0 1.0 3.9 2.6 13.2 2.9 5.3 1.2 10.1 2.3 10.2 1.2 Nervous System Headache Dizziness 5.0 4.0 6.5 1.3 7.5 5.2 3.5 0.6 6.3 3.5 4.6 3.4 Respiratory Pharyngitis Upper Respiratory Infection Rhinitis Cough 2.0 6.0 7.0 4.0 4.6 9.8 5.2 1.3 1.5 5.2 3.8 3.1 1.2 4.1 1.2 1.2 2.0 5.9 3.9 2.5 2.7 5.8 4.9 1.7 Investigation ALT Increased g-GT Increased CPK Increased 2.0 3.0 5.0 2.0 2.6 1.3 4.0 2.1 5.2 1.2 0.6 2.9 2.9 2.0 4.1 1.2 1.2 3.6 The safety and tolerability of PRAVACHOL at a dose of 80 mg in 2 controlled trials with a mean exposure of 8.6 months was similar to that of PRAVACHOL at lower doses except that 4 out of 464 patients taking 80 mg of pravastatin had a single elevation of CK >10 times ULN compared to 0 out of 115 patients taking 40 mg of pravastatin., Long-Term Controlled Morbidity and Mortality Trials In the PRAVACHOL placebo-controlled clinical trials database of 21,483 patients (age range 24-75 years, 10.3% women, 52.3% Caucasians, 0.8% Blacks, 0.5% Hispanics, 0.1% Asians, 0.1% Others, 46.1% Not Recorded) with a median treatment duration of 261 weeks, 8.1% of patients on PRAVACHOL and 9.3% patients on placebo discontinued due to adverse events regardless of causality. Adverse event data were pooled from 7 double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study [WOS]; Cholesterol and Recurrent Events study [CARE]; Long-term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischemic Disease study [LIPID]; Pravastatin Limitation of Atherosclerosis in the Coronary Arteries study [PLAC I]; Pravastatin, Lipids and Atherosclerosis in the Carotids study [PLAC II]; Regression Growth Evaluation Statin Study [REGRESS]; and Kuopio Atherosclerosis Prevention Study [KAPS]) involving a total of 10,764 patients treated with pravastatin 40 mg and 10,719 patients treated with placebo. The safety and tolerability profile in the pravastatin group was comparable to that of the placebo group. Patients were exposed to pravastatin for a mean of 4.0 to 5.1 years in WOS, CARE, and LIPID and 1.9 to 2.9 years in PLAC I, PLAC II, KAPS, and REGRESS. In these long-term trials, the most common reasons for discontinuation were mild, non-specific gastrointestinal complaints. Collectively, these 7 trials represent 47,613 patient-years of exposure to pravastatin. All clinical adverse events (regardless of causality) occurring in ≥2% of patients treated with pravastatin in these studies are identified in Table 2. Table 2: Adverse Events in ≥2% of Patients Treated with Pravastatin 40 mg and at an Incidence Greater Than Placebo in Long-Term Placebo-Controlled Trials Body System/Event Pravastatin (N=10,764) % of patients Placebo (N=10,719) % of patients Dermatologic Rash (including dermatitis) 7.2 7.1 General Edema Fatigue Chest Pain Fever Weight Gain Weight Loss 3.0 8.4 10.0 2.1 3.8 3.3 2.7 7.8 9.8 1.9 3.3 2.8 Musculoskeletal Musculoskeletal Pain Muscle Cramp Musculoskeletal Traumatism 24.9 5.1 10.2 24.4 4.6 9.6 Nervous System Dizziness Sleep Disturbance Anxiety/Nervousness Paresthesia 7.3 3.0 4.8 3.2 6.6 2.4 4.7 3.0 Renal/Genitourinary Urinary Tract Infection 2.7 2.6 Respiratory Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Cough Influenza Pulmonary Infection Sinus Abnormality Tracheobronchitis 21.2 8.2 9.2 3.8 7.0 3.4 20.2 7.4 9.0 3.5 6.7 3.1 Special Senses Vision Disturbance (includes blurred vision, diplopia) 3.4 3.3 Infections Viral Infection 3.2 2.9 In addition to the events listed above in the long-term trials table, events of probable, possible, or uncertain relationship to study drug that occurred in <2.0% of pravastatin-treated patients in the long-term trials included the following: Dermatologic: scalp hair abnormality (including alopecia), urticaria. Endocrine/Metabolic: sexual dysfunction, libido change. General: flushing. Immunologic: allergy, edema head/neck. Musculoskeletal: muscle weakness. Nervous System: vertigo, insomnia, memory impairment, neuropathy (including peripheral neuropathy). Special Senses: taste disturbance., 6.2 Postmarketing Experience In addition to the events reported above, as with other drugs in this class, the following events have been reported during postmarketing experience with PRAVACHOL, regardless of causality assessment: Musculoskeletal: myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, tendon disorder, polymyositis. There have been rare reports of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy associated with statin use [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. Nervous System: dysfunction of certain cranial nerves (including alteration of taste, impairment of extraocular movement, facial paresis), peripheral nerve palsy. There have been rare postmarketing reports of cognitive impairment (e.g., memory loss, forgetfulness, amnesia, memory impairment, confusion) associated with statin use. These cognitive issues have been reported for all statins. The reports are generally nonserious, and reversible upon statin discontinuation, with variable times to symptom onset (1 day to years) and symptom resolution (median of 3 weeks). Hypersensitivity: anaphylaxis, angioedema, lupus erythematosus-like syndrome, polymyalgia rheumatica, dermatomyositis, vasculitis, purpura, hemolytic anemia, positive ANA, ESR increase, arthritis, arthralgia, asthenia, photosensitivity, chills, malaise, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme (including Stevens-Johnson syndrome). Gastrointestinal: abdominal pain, constipation, pancreatitis, hepatitis (including chronic active hepatitis), cholestatic jaundice, fatty change in liver, cirrhosis, fulminant hepatic necrosis, hepatoma, fatal and non-fatal hepatic failure. Dermatologic: a variety of skin changes (e.g., nodules, discoloration, dryness of mucous membranes, changes to hair/nails). Renal: urinary abnormality (including dysuria, frequency, nocturia). Respiratory: dyspnea, interstitial lung disease. Psychiatric: nightmare. Reproductive: gynecomastia. Laboratory Abnormalities: liver function test abnormalities, thyroid function abnormalities., and 6.4 Pediatric Patients In a 2-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving 100 boys and 114 girls with HeFH (n=214; age range 8-18.5 years, 53% female, 95% Caucasians, <1% Blacks, 3% Asians, 1% Other), the safety and tolerability profile of pravastatin was generally similar to that of placebo. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.3) , Use in Specific Populations (8.4) , and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) .]

Recent major changes

Dosage and Administration, Patients with Renal Impairment (2.3) 7/2016 Contraindications, Pregnancy (4.3), Lactation (4.4) 7/2016

Mechanism

12.1 Mechanism of Action Pravastatin is a reversible inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, an early and rate limiting step in the biosynthetic pathway for cholesterol. In addition, pravastatin reduces VLDL and TG and increases HDL-C.

Contraindications

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS •Hypersensitivity to any component of this medication. (4.1, 6.2, 11) •Active liver disease or unexplained, persistent elevations of serum transaminases. (4.2, 5.2) •Pregnancy (4.3, 8.1) •Lactation (4.4, 8.2) 4.1 Hypersensitivity Hypersensitivity to any component of this medication. 4.2 Liver Active liver disease or unexplained, persistent elevations of serum transaminases [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ]. 4.3 Pregnancy Atherosclerosis is a chronic process and discontinuation of lipid-lowering drugs during pregnancy should have little impact on the outcome of long-term therapy of primary hypercholesterolemia. Cholesterol and other products of cholesterol biosynthesis are essential components for fetal development (including synthesis of steroids and cell membranes). Since statins decrease cholesterol synthesis and possibly the synthesis of other biologically active substances derived from cholesterol, they are contraindicated during pregnancy and in nursing mothers. PRAVASTATIN SHOULD BE ADMINISTERED TO WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE ONLY WHEN SUCH PATIENTS ARE HIGHLY UNLIKELY TO CONCEIVE AND HAVE BEEN INFORMED OF THE POTENTIAL HAZARDS. If the patient becomes pregnant while taking this class of drug, therapy should be discontinued immediately and the patient apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3) ]. 4.4 Lactation Pravastatin is present in human milk. Because statins have the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, women who require PRAVACHOL treatment should not breastfeed their infants [see Use in Specific Populations (8.2) ]., 4.1 Hypersensitivity Hypersensitivity to any component of this medication., 4.2 Liver Active liver disease or unexplained, persistent elevations of serum transaminases [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ]., 4.3 Pregnancy Atherosclerosis is a chronic process and discontinuation of lipid-lowering drugs during pregnancy should have little impact on the outcome of long-term therapy of primary hypercholesterolemia. Cholesterol and other products of cholesterol biosynthesis are essential components for fetal development (including synthesis of steroids and cell membranes). Since statins decrease cholesterol synthesis and possibly the synthesis of other biologically active substances derived from cholesterol, they are contraindicated during pregnancy and in nursing mothers. PRAVASTATIN SHOULD BE ADMINISTERED TO WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE ONLY WHEN SUCH PATIENTS ARE HIGHLY UNLIKELY TO CONCEIVE AND HAVE BEEN INFORMED OF THE POTENTIAL HAZARDS. If the patient becomes pregnant while taking this class of drug, therapy should be discontinued immediately and the patient apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3) ]., and 4.4 Lactation Pravastatin is present in human milk. Because statins have the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, women who require PRAVACHOL treatment should not breastfeed their infants [see Use in Specific Populations (8.2) ].